Etymologies of Phrases, Words, Alphabets

showing the origins of Biblical (and other) words in Hebrew (OT) and Greek (NT) and the way the meanings have changed through time

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Regarding the etymology of the word etymology it is made up of two words "Etymon" — Origin / True Sense / Essence and "Logoi" — Words. The modern Greek word is "Eteos" — True, Real, or Genuine. In the Greek New Testament neither Eteos nor Etymon can be found, but two closely related Greek words are Etos — Years / Cycles (since the Origin of Adam) from which we get the modern word veteran and Eimi — translated as "I am" or "Essence of Being".
This word "Etymology" was Latinized by Cicero as Veriloquium — a true speech (translation). Brings to mind Pilate's words "What is truth i.e. not hidden?"

Jesus’s reply is of course not recorded and Pilate having had the last word, walks out. And he answers his own question in his next word to the Jewish leaders “I find in him no fault at all” and after Jesus has been scourged "Behold the man".

John 1:14 And the word “logos” became flesh (weak, exposed, and subject to the ravages of the years “etos”) and dwelt, encamped among us (where men and women could see him as he is “eimi”). And we have beheld his glory, his splendour, the splendour of the only-born of the Father, full of grace (favour) and truth (unhidden).

True, like a Tree, a vine tree, through many years, He is the vine, we are his branches. His words bring total protection, as long as we stay joined. The enemy’s fibs frequently involve shortcuts, bypass the time that God says is necessary for genuine fruit.

A close derivative of truth-speaker is "sooth-sayer" from "soo" — related to the Latin / Italian verb "sono" — the old English word "sinner" → In truth I am (guilty), In truth I am (judged) — I come up short, in debt. To miss the goal and prize in Greek, also in Hebrew. To stumble - peccare in Latin, French, Italian.

Similar and related English / Germanic words to guilt, under obligation that evolved around 1200-1400 were "yield" — Make payment or service, "gild / gilt" — Provide yellow, golden covering, "guild" — Become the governing body in a town, having different members but having the same trade / tread in life (and death).
Click here for four Hebrew words "Become", "Jehovah", "Living", "Live"


1 Cor13 Chatting about Love

10 Dimensions

Aleph Bet — Ancient Hebrew with a modern day pronunciation guide.

Alphabets — Ancient Hebrew and the various scripts that developed from it: Greek and Latin and Cyrillic, Devanagari, and Arabic. Over in the far east Chinese Japanese and Korean on the other hand developed from an early, syllabic, cuneiform script.

Amazed — Being Beside Yourself (or nuts)

Amber — Fossilized tree resin, the appearance of the Lord, and "absolutely electric"

Angels (and kings)

Antioch and its Patriarchs (Bishops) starting with St Peter

  1. List of Patriarchs before 518. Speaking Greek.
  2. List of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs 512–present. Speaking Aramaic. Declaring Christ had only "one" nature (wholly divine) moved from Antioch south into Lebanon after Council of Chalcedon. Based in Damascus since 1959.
  3. List of Syriac Catholic Patriarchs 1662–present. Speaking Aramaic. Sought closer ties with Rome. Based in Beirut.
  4. List of Maronite Patriarchs 686–present. Speaking Aramaic (and Arabic). After Muslim invasion, established in Lebanon. Today based in Bkerke, 16 kilometres north of Beirut.
  5. List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs 518–present. In 1342, the Greek seat was transferred from Antioch to Damascus.
  6. List of Melkite Catholic Patriarchs 1724–present. Speaking Arabic. Sought closer ties with Rome. Based in Damascus.
  7. List of Latin Patriarchs 1098–1964. Speaking Latin during the Crusades. After 1268 when Antioch fell with great bloodshed to Baibars, the sultan of Egypt, the Latin Patriarchs ruled in name only.

April Fools' Day — some historical background

Aramaic — from Aram, son of Shem, and its relationship to Hebrew and Arabic

Archipelago — Latin "Archi Pelagus" is derived from the Greek name for the "Aegean Sea" — "Aegean" based on "Aig(y)es" meaning "Jump" like Goats, or like Waves rushing upon a beach. There are almost 2,500 islands in the Aegean Sea that runs between the east coast of Greece and the west coast of Turkey, starting at the island of Crete in the south.

Ark of the Covenant — its last physical placement. In 2 Chronicles 35 King Josiah tells the Levites to "Put the holy ark into the temple. You need not carry it on your shoulders any longer. Now serve the Lord." Not long after, just 35 years later the temple was destroyed, burnt to the ground by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. And Jeremiah, in Jeremiah 3:16, speaks of the day coming when "the ark of the covenant shall not come to mind, remembered, missed, nor rebuilt, and at that time Jerusalem shall be called the Throne of the Lord, and all nations shall gather to it, to the presence of the Lord in Jerusalem."

Armenia — based on Ararat, and its relationship to Aram, son of Shem

Babylon — as revealed in Wikipedia

Babylon — as revealed in Revelation 17

Banah — Hebrew word for Build from which comes the words "Ben" (Hebrew) and "Bar" (Aramaic) meaning Son

Baptism — Dipped in water

Basis — Authoritative place — Bema

Bible Timeline — reconciled with Jewish Calendar and James Ussher

Biblical Criticism — Jewish Rabbi on Moses contrasted with Baruch Spinoza Dutch philosopher 1632-1677 and Julius Wellhausen German theologian 1844-1918

Bios — and prayer and Jacob wrestling with "the man"

Bishopric from "episkopos" — to oversee. See too Deacon from "diaconus", a "go-between", a servant or minister.

Blessing and Cursing — first mention in scripture

Book(s) —(a) Parchment and Papyrus (Pre flood)
(b) Wax Tablets using stone and boxwood (Moses and the Prophets)
(c) Codex Bound Pages in a single unit by the time of Julius Caesar and the New Testament
Bind them (strips of parchment) to your fingers and write them on the (soft) tablets of your heart Proverbs 7:32

Book of Jude — some thoughts

Book of Judges and Samuel — Saul and David. Includes a list of judges, a link to a list of high priests, and a reconciliation beween Paul's "450 years of judges" in the Book of Acts, and the Old Testament's "480th year" from the Exodus to Solomon "beginning to build the Lord's house"

Book of Life — What is it? How do I get in it? 

Bright Young People — a London Society c.1924-1931

Buddha, Confucius, Seth and Larry — words/last words

Caesar Augustus decree made about 1 BC for the Jewish customs, their holy days, and their "highest god"

Cain and Abel, Enoch and Enosh, Iysh and Ishshah, Adam and Adamah

Calendar History

Canada and US — some history

Canon — in Greek Kanon "any straight rod or bar, rule, standard of excellence" (see Cane (n.)). In Hebrew Qanah means "acquire, fixed in place" with Qanna meaning "jealousy". In classical Latin, "measuring line, rule". In late Latin, "decree of the church, a clergyman living under a rule". From c. 1400 the canon referred to "the Scriptures, the books of the Bible accepted by the Christian church," also extended to secular books of admitted excellence or supremacy.

Catholic from two Greek words "Kata" (through out) and "Holos" (the whole) i.e. universal teachings. First written as a word about 110AD by St Ignatius of Antioch "Wherever the bishop appears, there let the people be, as wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church."
The Romans adopted "universus" as its counterpart in Latin — "turned into one" — first used apparently by Cicero 106BC - 43BC in writing about Nature (space and time) "turned into one" entity.

As a side note, when pronouncing the word "Catholic" in other languages, the letter "h" is silent. Except in the original Greek where the "θ" character was written for the "th" sound, it is spelt "Kaθolikos" and pronounced similar to English. It is similar to the Greek word "Θeos" — meaning "God" — which became "Deus" in Latin.

Cave of Shem and Eber — A cave in Safed in Northern Israel attributed to having been used by Shem and Eber to teach the Torah, prior to Moses.

Chapel and Chaplain from the French word for "cape" — story of Martin of Tours, a Roman soldier who cut his cape in two to give to a shivering person and heard the Lord "you have clothed me"


Chess — its Etymology, its Pieces and its Timeline

Chosen (Forever Young)

Christmas Hymns, Carols and Songs

Christopher Columbus — Travelling west to "India" in 1492. Long before Copernicus (1473-1543) Galileo (1564-1642) and Newton (1642-1727) it was known to most scholars that the earth was a sphere.
See Isaiah 40:22 and this quote from Aristotle "it is the sea which divides as it seems the parts beyond India (The Eastern or Pacific Ocean) from those beyond the Pillars of Hercules (The Rock of Gibraltar i.e. The Atlantic Ocean) and prevents the earth from being inhabited all round". Yes, he said it was round.

However the Heliocentric concept of it being a "revolving earth" that travelled around the sun found considerable difficulty countering the mainstream Geocentric concept of it being a "stationary earth" which the sun travelled around instead. This was the teaching developed by the aforementioned Aristotle (384BC-322BC), and also Ptolemy (100AD-170AD). Gradually after Copernicus the heliocentric idea of the earth being a part of the Solar System was accepted as a more scientific explanation, and it has been proved by the space flights of the past century.

Chuck Missler (Chuck Smith, Maranatha Music)

Church, God and Jesus's name in numerous languages.

Cities of Refuge — Asylum — Sanctuary

Classes (in Rome and in France) and Political Parties (in UK, US, and Australia)

Congregation, Gathering from the Latin grex — "flock, herd", Greek agros / agra — "field country farm" / "catch (of fish)", egeiro / agora — "arise" / "marketplace", ago or agonia — "brought" or "strife".

Consecrated Life — prayer time with Tony McLennan from Bible League Australia

Constantine — 303-312 AD – 10 years – last and perhaps most terrible of government persecutions of early Church.

Creeds up to the Apostles Creed

Crimson Grub

Critical Text is followed in most modern New Testament translations. It uses the original Greek based mostly on the 4th century Codex Vaticanus and Sinaiticus as published by Westcott Hort in 1881 — and contrasts, to a small degree, with the KJV (King James Version) and NKJV (New King James Version) that were based on 12th and 15th century Greek texts in the Textus Receptus published by Erasmus in 1516.

With the Old Testament, most modern translations use the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia based on the Leningrad Codex housed at the National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg. The KJV used the Second Rabbinic Bible (Mikraot Gedolot - Great Scriptures) published by Daniel Bomberg in Venice in 1524 with Jacob ben Hayyim as the printer.
In accordance with Jesus words in Matthew 5:17-20 there have been apparently zero variations in the written Torah (the first five books of Moses) since its Hebrew "template" model was set up by Ezra at the temple in Jerusalem around 400BC, and minimal variations to the Hebrew/Aramaic text with regards to the other books.

Cromwell and Princess Henrietta Maria and Adolf Hitler

Crucifixion — Timeline of the Last Supper, Jesus's Arrest and the Crucifixion

Day — Yowm and its meaning in Hebrew

Desire — Tsuqa (tesh-oo-ka) in its original sense in the Hebrew refers to the "Legs", the "Streets", "Running after", "Overflowing".

  1. With regards to Eve towards her man
    Gen 3:16 To the woman (isha) he said, I will greatly multiply your grief and your conceiving, in grief you shall bring forth children, and your desire (running) shall be towards your man (iysh), and he shall rule over you (be your boss).
  2. Speaking to Cain about sin
    Gen 4:7 If you do well, shall you not be accepted (rise up, have dignity)? and if you do not well, sin lies (as an animal) at the door. And toward you shall be its desire (running), and you shall rule over him (be its boss).
  3. Song of Songs speaking of her Beloved
    Sng 7:10 I am my beloved's and his desire (running) is toward me.

Diocese from "dia-oikos" — a managed region

Devil — in old English "Deofol", in Gothic "Diabaulus", an agent noun from Greek diaballein "to slander or attack" literally "to throw across," from dia "across, through" + ballein "to throw"

Dispensation — Resources meeting Needs. Basic Economics. Stewardship. Nowhere does it say there are "seven dispensations" Corrie Ten Boom, Tramp for the Lord and China.

Drinking and Watering cf Blood cf Holy Anointing Oil

Driving on the left side of the road. Before the late 1700s, everyone in Europe used to do it. Why did Europe (and the US) change?

Early Creeds

Early Marriages in scripture, from Adam and Eve to Abraham and Sarah

Early Numerals and Measurements

East West North and South

Ecclesia — Citizens Assemblies and Early Church — Kyrie and Lord's House — and Peter

Epic of Gilgamesh — First full account discovered in 1853 in Nineveh. It was written in Akkadian script on numerous clay tablets, inside the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria circa 600BC. Click here for their timeline. The Nineveh record was compiled between 1300BC and 1000BC, apparently from a record in Ur, circa 2020BC. Ur, Abraham's birthplace, is also famous for the Code of Ur-Nammu click here, the oldest known law code surviving today. Gilgamesh himself was said to be a king of Erech who visited Utnapishtim (Noah) who told him about the great flood. The king's plan had been to discover the secret of eternal life, rumoured to have been granted to Noah given his great age at the visit

Epipipto — Holy Spirit Embrace

Eternity and Thoughts on 1 John 5

Eucharist from "eucharistia" — to give thanks (in response to being "well-favoured")

Evil — Two words for "evil" in New Testament "Kakos"-kakky injury (badness) and "Poneros"-painful punishing break down (cunning or tricky)

Exodus — 1947 event that inspired a Jewish "happier-ending" book in 1958 and a movie in 1960 starring Paul Newman. In July 1947 a ship, the "SS Exodus" sailed from Sète, 200km west of Marseille in southern France, illegally bound for Haifa in Palestine, with 4,515 Jewish "Displaced Persons" following WW2. The ship was boarded by the British outside Haifa, the Jews transferred to three ships and returned to France, but once there they refused to disembark. Eventually they sailed to Hamburg Germany, under British rule at the time, where they were forced to disembark. The Jews, after screening, were then free to leave, but initially found themselves in "Displaced Persons" camps inside Germany. Worldwide outrage followed, and in November 1947 the declaration of an "Arab" state and a "Jewish" state (Israel) in Palestine that would enable unlimited Jewish immigration into Israel, was voted on and formally adopted by the UN. ...

 Kitty        I saw the people on that ship.
              They're not dangerous. They're just poor, miserable people.

              Why can't you let them go?

 General      You must understand that we British have shown, throughout our history...
     extraordinary talent for troublesome commitments.

              Palestine is a British mandate imposed upon us...

     the League of Nations...

              ...which makes us responsible for keeping peace in the area.

              The Arabs simply won't keep the peace if we allow further Jewish immigration.

 Kitty        I don't know much about the mandate.

              But I do know the Jews were promised a homeland in Palestine.

 General      During the First World War,

              Britain needed and accepted Jewish support...

              ...from all over the world.

              In return...

              ...the Balfour Declaration of 1917 made such a promise.

              That promise was reconfirmed during World War ll.

              This chap Ben Canaan probably wasn't lying when he said he fought with us.

              Thousands of Palestinians did.

 Kitty        How can you promise something and then not deliver it?

 General     England was fighting for her life in 1917.

              Nations are very like people in such circumstances.

              They make promises they're not immediately able to fulfill.

              During that same crisis, we made the Arabs certain assurances.

              Hence, they have their claims, too.

              The Arabs are fanatics on the subject of Jewish immigration.

              Just now, we need their goodwill.

 Kitty        -How is it ever going to end? -I don't know.
              The whole question now is before the United Nations.

              I hope they solve it.

              The sooner I stop operating detention camps, the happier I'll be.

              That goes for every British officer and soldier I know.

Feasts — Feast (literally Appointed Time) of Trumpets

Fellowship — Good old 1 Corinthians

Football Timeline — Aussie Rules, Gaelic Football, Grid Iron, Rugby League, Rugby Union, Soccer

Foreknowledge vs Fortune Telling

Four Horsemen, Simon the Pharisee, Judas, and Paul's attitude to taking up a collection

Four Living Creatures, four main tribes (around the tabernacle), and the four points on the Hebrew compass: east (towards the sunrise), south (strong hand on the right), north (hidden covering on the left), and west (the roar, the Mediterranean Sea behind)

Gad in the Old Testament, translated as a "Troop" or "Fortune" and even "Daimon" in the Septuagint in Isaiah 65:11

As an actual name, Gad appears 70 times in the Old Testament

  1. seventh son of Jacob by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, and full brother of Asher.
  2. the tribe descended from Gad
  3. a prophet during the time of David who appears to have joined David when in the hold and then reappears in connection with the punishment for taking a census. He also assisted in the arrangements for the musical service of the "house of God"

Garden Tomb, Calvary, Maps of the old city and Modern Jerusalem

Gehenna — the valley of fire for refuse and dishonoured corpses in the days of Jesus

Genealogies of Jesus

Genesis 2 and 3 — Nakedness, Smoothness, and Shame

Gentile — A member of a nation-family, in the Latin "gentilis", in the Greek "ethnikos", in the Hebrew "goy".

George — comes from two Greek words "Ge" meaning "earth" and "Ergon" meaning "work" — the Greek word for a "farmer". St George was a Christian soldier who defied the Emperor Diocletian's edict to recant his faith in 303 and was martyred. He became the patron saint of many countries, including England under King Edward III in 1350. In 1863 George I of Greece (Prince Philip's grandfather) became a popular king after their independence from Turkey, reigning for 50 years.

Glory, Weight, Gravity — Law of Relativity and Four Forces in Physics

Goad — An iron spike, nail at the end of a rod about two or more metres long.

God's 7 Day Week vs Blind Evolution

Greatest Commandment — Love God with Heart, Soul, Mind and Strength

Greek History — Solon's Democracy to Alexander the Great

Happening — stuff that happens to happen to people

History of Calendar

History of Money

Homosexual, first used as a word about 1880
On a somewhat related issue, click here for some statistics on sex abnormalities in DNA, ones that do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies.
Click here for an authoritative Q&A on HIV/AIDS.

Horse — Hebrew meaning is "Skip" (for joy). Top speed about 88 kph. Ridden by cavalry and charioteers, the wealthy, the nobles, and the King in Old Testament times and also in the Book of Revelation.
Ass or donkey — Beasts of burden. Top speed about 24 kph. Ridden by Jesus when he entered Jerusalem.

Host from "hostia" — holy victim/stranger/sacrifice
contrast with the other meaning of "Host" — from "hospes" — showing hospitality to strangers or guests

Hudson Taylor — Missionary to China. Referred to as the Father of modern missions. While stressing the need to preach widely, Hudson Taylor urged local churches to establish and mature, for church buildings to be of Chinese not foreign design.

Human — Early use of the pronouns "he" and "she", semen and sperm, hormones, and bacteria colonies in the gut

Humour, from Latin humor ‘moisture’, 'bodily fluids' changing in the late 16th century to its modern meaning where "humoring someone" means "providing amusement, teasing and sport"

Hur, Bible men in the Background

India — its ancient name "Bhaa-rat" as written in eight of its most widely spoken languages and their background.

Inflation — its History

Japanese — some background to their scripts

Jealousy — Zeal — Envy — Qanna (Hebrew) and Zelos (Greek)

Jeremiah 29 and living in Babylon

Jerusalem — its History with maps to the "Old City", plus extra sketches of Herod's Temple.

Jesus's Family — Cousins,Aunties

Jesus Life on Earth 2 BC — 31 AD

Jesus Pre-Existence

Jewish surname history

Jubilee Years

Keep — Guard — Being responsible — Shamar

Key Verse Favorites

Kisses and other interesting subjects

Knights and their fame as the Knights Templar in Jerusalem and Europe starting in 1119. Followed by the legend of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table in 1155.

Kyrie — It's Christmas, so I just updated my page on Kyrie Eleison and that old chap, Cyrus, with some extra background.

Lawrence of Arabia — TE Lawrence (1888 - 1935), a "James Bond" character who was a British Intelligence Army Officer in Cairo, Aqaba, and Damascus during WW1 (1915 - 1918).

Let's Go Dancing — Choros

Logos (loyal) Law, Love, Lever, and Lift

Love and Truth and Marriage (and soul and spirit)

Lucifer's name — from Isaiah 14:12 "king of Babylon" plus Ezekiel 28:12-15 "ruler of Tyre"

Makeup of Man

Male and Female

Marriage and Betrothal — Its meaning and its history in early scripture, in modern Israel, in England, and Australia

Mass from "Dismissal" — Go forth

Mention from the Latin word "mens, mentis" and the Greek word "mneia" — the mind. Click here for Paul's use of the word in his prayers for the church. Click here for all New Testament related words "memories, remembrances, even sepulchres and tombs" — the "redeemed" past that is ever present in God, in his unchanging nature. Jesus Christ, the redeemer, the same yesterday, today, and tomorrow Hebrews 13:8. All things working together for good for them that love God Romans 8:28.

Mishneh based on Shanah — Second Part of Jerusalem, Copy (of the Law), Study by Repetition, Double

Mishnah also refers to the Second (or Oral) Law. It was codified by Judah bin Nasi (the Prince) in 189 AD in Northern Israel after the Jews were forbidden entrance to Jerusalem on pain of death (following the revolt by Jewish leader Bar Kochba in 132 - 135 AD). The Mishnah was written to ensure their traditional oral customs were not lost. It groups these laws under six basic headings: 1. Blessings Givings and Agricultural laws 2. Festivals 3. Marriage Divorce and Nazirite vows 4. Civil and Criminal laws 5. Holy things and Dietary laws 6. Purity and Impurity.

Motoring History — Motor Cars and Petrol

  1. Early History — Ten Motor Car Photos from 1885-1927
  2. Filling Stations — Various Names for Petroleum Benzin, Benzina, Moto Essence, Petrol, Gasoline
  3. Current Status — Australia and Worldwide Petrol and Diesel, Electric and Hybrid

Mt Sinai — The Law, and That Fellowship Issue - Good old 1 Corinthians

Music — its pentatonic, diatonic and chromatic scales, Chinese musicology, and A440 — the audio frequency reference presently used for orchestra tuning. What does all that mean ?

Musical Timeline — Do-Re-Mi Notes Clefs and Staff

Myers Briggs Psychological Types and Work Place Stats

Nicodemus, Nicolas of Antioch, Nicolaus of Damascus, and Nicolaitans

Numbers and Measurements

Numbering God's People

Nun from "nana" — a term of family affection for an older lady

Offerings — Five Offerings in Leviticus

Paradise and the Third Heaven

Parish from "para-oikos" — the administrative "part" of a diocese (or bishopric) that has its "own building" (or church).

Passion — Suffering — Feeling Under Pressure — Pascho and Pascha

Passover — its layout and its dates in Israel in 2021


Paul Brand and "Granny" Brand (and pain and Cain and Abel)

Paul's Missionary Journeys one per map plus a full map with original Bible names

Peace — Irony — Shalom (Hebrew) and Eirene (Greek)

Pneumatikos vs Psuchikos — Spiritual vs Natural

Polynesia — Micronesia, Melanesia, and Indonesia

Praise and Worship

Priest — in old English "Preost" is related to the French word "Provost" (where the v is pronounced as a w), and the High German word "Probost". Both are related to the Latin word "Praepositus" — Front Row (Forward) and the Greek word "Presbus" — "Pres" (Front) and "Bu" (ox) — (an Ox) leading the way. From which we also derive the word "Presbyterian", normally translated in English as Elder. In the Vulgate Bible the Latin word "Senior" was used, their word for an Elder or Older man.

Priest in Old Testament Hebrew (and translated in the Greek Septuagint as "Hiereus") is the word "Kohen" — Officer (of God), a title conferred on Melchizedek in early Jerusalem at the time of Abraham, Jethro in Midian at the time of Moses, and then on Aaron (Moses's older brother) and his descendants.

Priest in New Testament Greek is the word Hiereus from "Hieros" — Holy One — the one who points the way to connectedness or Wholeness (Holiness). In the Latin Vulgate the word "Sacerdos" was used, for the one who did Holy or Sacred Acts. See too Hierosolyma — Jerusalem, "Pointing the Way out to Peace" from the Hebrew words "Yara" and "Shalom". Also Hieron, the "Holy Temple" (contrasted with Hagion, the "Holy Place").

"High" Priest is Archiereus — Actions of Piety of Christ in Hebrews 5

Prophet — based on the Greek word Prophetes used to mean an inspired speaker or poet. The word "fate" also comes from the base of this word, and many words relating to speech and enlightenment such as fame, fantasy, fairy, pant, epiphany, phenomenon, phase, emphasis, phantom, phone, photo, beacon, banner, banish, and even blame click here.
The equivalent Hebrew word is Nabi or Navi and the plural noun is Neviim

Psalm 137:9 — Devastation — Dashing little ones upon the rocks

Python — from Greek word "Putho" - to enquire. Related via Latin to the words "putrid" and "ponder" and "foundation". Also a place, later called Delphi, an ancient sanctuary in Greece where people sought out oracles. And an evil spirit, as seen in Acts 16:16.

Rabbis and Princes and Scribes and Pharisees — The Jewish Council — protecting the Law and all the Traditions of Judaism over the past 2,000 years

Rapture and Mysteries

Religious Affiliations in Australia 2016

Repentance — A Changed Worldview — Nacham (Hebrew) and Metanoia (Greek)

Reprove and Rebuke — in a definition of Faith — the substructure of things expected (hoped for), the reproof of things not seen.

Righteous among the Nations — the story of Miep Gies (and Anne Frank)

"Risen" — the movie

Sacrifice from "sacred" and "facere" — to make sacred for God
in Greek "thusos" — smoke and fire

School — its etymology

See — five shades of meaning

Seeking God

Sevens and Sixes (in Hebrew) — and the Sabbath rest

Seven Churches in Revelation

Seven Spirits in the Book of Revelation and in Isaiah 11:2
The first spirit is the Spirit of Jehovah (God) followed by three couplets representing the Future (Wisdom and Understanding), the Present (Counsel and Might), the Past (Knowledge and of Fear of the Lord).

Sex without Commitment verses in the Old Testament — translated as harlot, whoredom, fornication in old King James English. Note H6945 and H6948 infer a quasi-sacred devotee.

Skateboarding Timeline

Slave has its origins in the word Slav. The Slavs, who inhabited a large part of Eastern Europe, were taken as slaves by the Muslims of Spain during the ninth century AD. The word became "sclavus" in Medieval Latin, and "esclave" in French, with Shakespeare popularizing "slave" in English through his numerous plays. While it is commonly used in modern translations of the Bible, the King James Version uses it just twice click here for the references, preferring the terms "servant" and "bond-servant" instead.

South Africa timeline, "Amazing Grace", anti-slavery, Mr Hitler, and Nelson Mandela

Swearing an Oath — Shaba (Hebrew) and Horkos (Greek)


Tabernacle and the Temple in the days of Solomon, Zerubbabel and Herod

Table of Nations Josephus and World's Nations Today

Talmud from Lamad — teach, train or learn, and Malmadox goad

Tartarus — A Greek word, not found in the Hebrew, used by Peter in 2 Peter 2:4 and used twice in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, known as the Septuagint.

Taxes — History in Australia and Worldwide.

Temptation — being stressed, pierced to the limits.

Terah — Father of Delay

Terra Nullius — its background

  1. Terra is the Latin word for land (in general)
  2. Territorium is more specifically, the Latin word for the land around (or sometimes within) the boundaries of a town i.e. its territory
  3. In 1888 "Territorium Nullius" - nobody's territory - was first used as a Latin expression at the Berlin conference in Germany in reference to unclaimed territory around settlements in Africa
  4. In 1909 "Terra Nullius" - nobody's land - referred to an unclaimed polar region known as Svalbard by Camille Piccioni. Today polar regions are the subject of ongoing disputes by Russia, Canada, Denmark and Norway
  5. In 1992 "Terra Nullius" became a straw man argument made by Eddie Mabo's lawyers with specific reference to the Torres Straits Islands, claiming that the Queensland Government in 1971 had used the context of "Crown Land" to infer a prior "Terra Nullius" or "Nobody's Land" situation was applicable when James Cook made that declaration in 1770 at Cape York "claiming the territory of New South Wales in the name of the British Crown". But the land was occupied.
    So as a "straw man" argument in 1992, it could immediately be demolished by lawyers.

However, back in 1770 the British Empire, the French Empire, the German Empire, the Ottoman Empire, etc were major world-wide institutions. The British Government knew that the occupants of the land were entitled to Common law rights, and that Cook's declaration would inevitably involve granting them their rights. The situation then was more complicated than a Polar region "Terra Nullius" debate. And on many levels the situation still is today. A kingdom, an empire, a nation divided against itself cannot stand. Matthew 12:25

That Letter J

The World and Thoughts on 1 John 5

This Generation

U235 and U238 in Uranium — some basic notes

Urim and Thummim

US and Canada — some history

Wealth — better than any sermon, that conversation on wealth between Luke Skywalker and Han Solo in the first Star Wars — A New Hope.

               Suddenly Artoo begins to whistle and beep a blue streak.  
               Luke goes over to him.

                         What is it?

                         I'm afraid I'm not quite sure, sir. 
                         He says "I found her", and keeps 
                         repeating, "She's here."

                         Well, who... who has he found?

               Artoo whistles a frantic reply.

                         Princess Leia.

                         The princess? She's here?

                         Princess? What's going on?

                         Level five. Detention block A A-twenty-
                         three. I'm afraid she's scheduled to 
                         be terminated.

                         Oh, no! We've got to do something.

                         What are you talking about?

                         The droid belongs to her. She's the 
                         one in the message... We've got to 
                         help her.

                         Now, look, don't get any funny ideas. 
                         The old man wants us to wait right 

                         But he didn't know she was here. 
                         Look, will you just find a way back 
                         into the detention block?

                         I'm not going anywhere.

                         They're going to execute her. Look, 
                         a few minutes ago you said you didn't 
                         want to just wait here to be captured. 
                         Now all you want to do is stay.

                         Marching into the detention area is 
                         not what I had in mind.

                         But they're going to kill her!

                         Better her than me...

                         She's rich.

               Chewbacca growls.


                         Yes. Rich, powerful! Listen, if you 
                         were to rescue her, the reward would 


                         Well more wealth that you can imagine.

                         I don't know, I can imagine quite a 

                         You'll get it!

                         I better!

                         You will...

                         All right, kid. But you'd better be 
                         right about this.

               Han looks at Chewie, who grunts a short grunt.

                         All right.

                         What's your plan?

                         Uh... Threepio, hand me those binders 
                         there will you?

               Luke moves toward Chewbacca with electronic cuffs.

                         Okay. Now, I'm going to put these on 

               Chewie lets out a hideous growl.

                         Okay. Han, you put these on.

               Luke sheepishly hands the binders to Han.

                         Don't worry, Chewie. I think I know 
                         what he has in mind.

               The Wookiee has a worried and frightened look on his face as 
               Han binds him with the electronic cuffs.

                         Master Luke, sir! Pardon me for 
                         asking... but, ah... what should 
                         Artoo and I do if we're discovered 

                         Lock the door!

                         And hope they don't have blasters.

                         That isn't very reassuring.


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Week — in major languages worldwide.

Westminster Confession — in England's Parliament, written in 1646, that was designed to reform the Church of England
"There is no other Lord of the church but the Lord Jesus Christ.
Nor can the pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof, but is that Antichrist, man of sin, son of perdition (ruin), that exalts himself in the church against Christ and all that is called God."

And thus since 1701, all British monarchs have been required to be in communion with the Church of England (and not with the Church of Rome). However, Prince Charles, who has made comments about being "Defender of faiths" rather than "faith" has seen a new change in 2015, in which spouses of Roman Catholics are now eligible to become monarch.

Wisdom vs Knowledge and James 4

World Religions — Colossians 1:15-18, Colossians 2:6-23, Romans 1:28 and Apollos

FYI, if you use an iPhone and you click on the Play icon and the website just hangs there, you may need to clear your website history and data. This should also improve Safari's performance.
To do this
1. On the iPhone, select Settings, then select Safari. Tap the link Clear History and Website data.
2. Turn off your iPhone, then turn it on again.

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