Etymologies of Phrases, Words, Alphabets

showing the origins of Biblical (and other) words in Hebrew (OT) and Greek (NT) and the way the meanings have changed through time

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Regarding the etymology of the word etymology it is made up of two words "Etymon" — Origin / True Sense / Essence and "Logoi" — Words. The modern Greek word is "Eteos" — True, Real, or Genuine. In the Greek New Testament neither Eteos nor Etymon can be found, but two closely related Greek words are Etos — Years / Cycles (since the Origin of Adam) from which we get the modern word veteran and Eimi — translated as "I am" or "Essence of Being".
This word "Etymology" was Latinized by Cicero as Veriloquium — a true speech (translation). Brings to mind Pilate's words "What is truth i.e. not hidden?"

Jesus’s reply is of course not recorded and Pilate having had the last word, walks out. And he answers his own question in his next word to the Jewish leaders “I find in him no fault at all” and after Jesus has been scourged "Behold the man".

John 1:14 And the word “logos” (his intimate logic) became flesh (weak, exposed, and subject to the ravages of the years “etos”) and dwelt, encamped among us (where men and women could see him as he is “eimi”). And we have beheld his glory, his splendour, the splendour of the only-born of the Father, full of grace (favour) and truth (unhidden).

True, like a Tree, a vine tree, through many years, He is the vine, we are his branches. His words bring total protection, as long as we stay joined. The enemy’s fibs frequently involve shortcuts, bypass the time that God says is necessary for genuine fruit.

A close derivative of truth-speaker is "sooth-sayer" from "soo" — related to the Latin / Italian verb "sono" — the modern *English word "sinner" → In truth I am (guilty), In truth I am (judged) — I come up short, in debt. To miss the goal and prize in Greek, also in Hebrew. To stumble - peccare in Latin, French, Italian.
*The word "Sinner" had originally a Germanic background click here, but noting, too, its similarity to a Yiddish/Arabic/Persian word "zindiq" meaning "heretic", also the Hebrew words (click here) "zanah" meaning "harlot" (highly fed and undisciplined), "zanach" meaning "pushed aside", and "zanab" meaning "tail". In the Wessex Gospels ca 995AD the word "syn-ful" replaced an earlier word "𐍆𐍂𐌰𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐍄𐌹𐍃" (frawaurtis) written in the Gothic Bible ca 300AD, akin to the word "fraudster" or "false worker".

Similar and related English / Germanic words to guilt, under obligation that evolved around 1200-1400 were "yield" — Make payment or service, "gild / gilt" — Provide yellow, golden covering, "guild" — Become the governing body in a town, having different members but having the same trade / tread in life (and death).
Click here for four Hebrew words "Become", "Jehovah", "Living", "Live"


  1. 1 Cor13 Chatting about Love
  2. 10 Commandments — key meanings in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Modern English
  3. 10 Dimensions
  4. Acceptable Time2 Corinthians 6 with Paul first quoting the Lord's response to the suffering Messiah in Isaiah 49:8In an acceptable time I have heard you, And in the day of salvation I have helped you.
    Behold, now is the accepted time, behold, now is the day of salvation.
    See the four "Suffering Servant Songs" in Isaiah 42:1-9, Isaiah 49:1-13, Isaiah 50:4-11, Isaiah 52:13–53:12.
    Click here for a page on willingness, with references to "ratsa" and "ratson", the Hebrew words translated to English as "Acceptable", and "Own Will", "Pleasure", "Enjoy", "Favour", "Reconciled", "Pardoned", "Liked", "Affection", "Desire", "Accomplish", "Delight", "Approve", "Consented". See also — "rats-A" - run and "ratsad" - leap.
  5. Aleph Bet — The Hebrew alphabet, employed by God when the Ten Commandments were written on tablets delivered to Moses, was used by Moses to write the books of the Jewish Law or Torah i.e. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. It has become known today as the Proto-Sinaitic script of 22 letters which evolved into Phoenician, Aramaic, Greek, Roman (i.e. Latin), and modern English.
  6. Amazed — Being Beside Yourself (or nuts)
  7. Amber — Fossilized tree resin, the appearance of the Lord, and "absolutely electric"
  8. Angels (and kings)
  9. Antioch and its Patriarchs (Bishops) starting with St Peter. Population at time of Paul ranges from estimates of 300,000, to as high as 800,000 according to Josephus. Known as third city in the Roman empire, after Rome and Alexandria. A major earthquake in 526 with 250,000 killed devastated the city, followed by several more earthquakes that century. Conquered by the Persians in 611, and Saracen Arabs in 637, its population dwindled to that of a small village of 5,000 in 1268. Census showed 34,000 in 1934, 145,000 in 2000, and 220,000 in 2020. Current name is Antakya, overseen by Turkey since 1939.
    1. List of Patriarchs before 518. Speaking Greek.
    2. List of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs 512–present. Speaking Syriac Aramaic. Split after Council of Chalcedon, declaring Christ had "one" divine/human nature. Based mostly in Mardin, 500kms to the east, just north of modern Iraq. Since 1959 based in Damascus. Today's Membership 1.4 million.
      Oriental Orthodox membership 60 million, chiefly in Egypt and Ethiopia.
    3. List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs 518–present. Speaking Biblical Greek and Arabic. After 611, the Patriarch was based in Constantinople. In 1342, the seat was transferred to Damascus. Today's Membership 2½ million.
      Eastern Orthodox Membership (Istanbul-Constantinople) 220 million, 50% in Russia.
    4. List of Latin Patriarchs 1098–1964. The crusades following closures in 1054 of Latin churches in the East-West Schism. After 1268 when Antioch fell with great bloodshed to Baibars, the sultan of Egypt, that followed an Armenian rebellion, the Latin Patriarchs ruled in name only.
      Today's Roman Catholic membership 1.3 billion, 21% in Europe, 18% in Africa, 48% in the Americas (Brazil, Mexico and USA), 11% in Asia (Philippines).
    5. List of Maronite Catholic Patriarchs 686–present speaking Syriac Aramaic and Arabic. Moved to Byblos in northern Lebanon. Reconciled with Rome in 1182. Today based in Bkerke, 16 kilometres north of Beirut. Membership 3½ million.
    6. List of Syriac Catholic Patriarchs 1662–present. Speaking Syriac Aramaic. Split with Syriac Orthodox Church seeking closer ties with Rome. Based in Beirut. Membership 250,000.
    7. List of Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchs 1724–present. Speaking Greek and Arabic. Split with Greek Orthodox Church in Damascus, seeking closer ties with Rome. Membership 1½ million.
  10. April Fools' Day — some historical background
  11. Aramaic — from Aram, son of Shem, and its relationship to Hebrew and Arabic
  12. Archipelago — Latin "Archi Pelagus" is derived from the Greek name for the "Aegean Sea" — "Aegean" based on "Aig(y)es" meaning "Jump" like Goats, or like Waves rushing upon a beach. There are almost 2,500 islands in the Aegean Sea that runs between the east coast of Greece and the west coast of Turkey, starting at the island of Crete in the south.
  13. Ark in Hebrew, Greek, Latin
  14. Ark of the Covenant — its last physical placement. In 2 Chronicles 35 King Josiah tells the Levites to "Put the holy ark into the temple. You need not carry it on your shoulders any longer. Now serve the Lord." Not long after, just 35 years later the temple was destroyed, burnt to the ground by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. And Jeremiah, in Jeremiah 3:16, speaks of the day coming when "the ark of the covenant shall not come to mind, remembered, missed, nor rebuilt, and at that time Jerusalem shall be called the Throne of the Lord, and all nations shall gather to it, to the presence of the Lord in Jerusalem."
  15. Armenia — based on Ararat, and its relationship to Aram, son of Shem
  16. Ashamed following knowledge and wisdom — Gen 2:25 cf Gen 3:7. Wisdom came, their eyes were opened, and they knew they were naked, uncovered, and the result was shame — in Hebrew-buwsh (pale, distracted, confused, delayed), related to ba-ash — to "stink" with the "B" in Hebrew being that which is Built, the "S" being that which is Consumed, ba-sar — "flesh", ba-sere — to "show forth", broadcast, news / tidings (i.e. divisions of time)
    in Latin-erubesco (reddened, embarrassed), in Greek-aischros, ... (without strength, even obscene, filthy) cf ischuros (strength). So they covered themselves with aprons made from fig leaves. And in their independent actions, the knowledge of their nakedness / lack of covering brought fear, so they hid themselves.
  17. Ask (for it) — "Aiteo" in Greek, is not a simple query which is "erotao"-an utterance, but rather a "causative" case a petition for justice. for help, For something due. Translated at times as "causa" in Latin, becoming "cosa" in modern Italian and "cause" in English. It is a judicial "case", even at times an accusation.
  18. Babylon — as revealed in Wikipedia

    Babylon — as revealed in Revelation 17

  19. Banah — Hebrew word for Build from which comes the words "Bar" (Aramaic) and "Ben" (Hebrew) meaning Son, Bear, Born
  20. Baptism — Dipped in water
  21. Basis — Authoritative place — Bema
  22. Bible — in Greek there are two words for papyrus a material similar to thick paper — πάπυρος papuros, and βίβλος biblos which refers to the inner bark of the papyrus plant. The Greek writer Theophrastus 371BC - 287BC (the successor to Aristotle's school in Athens) used "papuros" when referring to the plant used as a foodstuff and "bublos" for the same plant when used for non-food products, such as cordage, basketry, or a writing surface.
    The Greeks and Romans also associated it with the port city of Byblos in Lebanon, a historical center for the distribution of papyrus, called Gebal in Ezekiel 27:9.
    Thus it found its way into English in such words as bibliography, bibliophile, and Bible. Click here to see its use in the New Testament.
  23. Bible Timeline — reconciled with Jewish Calendar and James Ussher
  24. Biblical Criticism — Jewish Rabbi on Moses contrasted with Baruch Spinoza Dutch philosopher 1632-1677 and Julius Wellhausen German theologian 1844-1918
  25. Bios — and prayer and Jacob wrestling with "the man"
  26. Bishopric from "episkopos" — to oversee. See too Deacon from "diaconus", a "go-between", a servant or minister.
  27. Blame in English comes from Blasmer and Blasme in French, and ultimately Blasphemy in Greek and Latin, with "phemy" based on the Greek words pheme "speech" and phone "voice, sound", while the initial "bla" is related to the Greek word blapto "to hurt", the Greek word diaballein "to slander, attack," literally "to throw across", also the Hebrew/Canaanite word Baal as seen in Beel-zebub "fly-lord".

    Blasphemeo, Blasphemia, Blasphemos G987 G988 G989 Blasphemy

    Other uses in scripture

    1. Kataginosko note against, find fault with, blame, condemn
    2. Egkaleo G1458 called out, accused
    3. Momaomai, Momos G3470, G3469 Blame, Blemishes (White spots, Flush, Flame)
    4. Amomos G299 Blameless
    5. Memphomai, mempsimoiros G3201, G3202 Find fault, Complainers
    6. G3313 Mempsimoiros based on Meros Portion or Fate
    7. in Latin Vitium, Vitiate means Vice
    8. also noting that Fault in English is related to the words "Fail" also "Fool, Folly" based on Latin fallere ‘deceive’.
  28. Blessing and Cursing — first mention in scripture
  29. Body parts in Hebrew
    noting that the Hebrew word for body (as a physical being) was nephesh, generally translated as creature, person or soul
    1. Heart leb - seat of the mind, see commentary
    2. Kidneys kilya - reins, seat of deep emotion, see commentary
    3. Liver kabed from kabod - weight, grievous, rich, honour, glory see commentary
    4. Nose, Nostrils aph - anger, see commentary
  30. Book(s) — a word derived from beech-bark German Buch "book" Buche "beech"


    1. Parchment and Papyrus (Pre flood)
    2. Wax Tablets using stone and boxwood (Moses and the Prophets)
    3. Codex Bound Pages of vellum (animal skin), papyrus or other materials in a single unit by the time of Julius Caesar and the New Testament
    4. Paper-making in China using a combination of milled plant and textile (cotton and linen) fibres after about 20AD
    5. Birch bark manuscripts in Afghanistan, North-west India, and Russia dating back to the 1st Century AD
    6. Palm-leaf manuscripts in India and south-east Asia making them out of dried palm leaves after 900AD

    Bind them (strips of parchment) to your fingers and write them on the (soft) tablets of your heart Proverbs 7:3

  31. Book of Jude — some thoughts
  32. Book of Judges and Samuel — Saul and David. Includes a list of judges, a link to a list of high priests, and a reconciliation beween Paul's "450 years of judges" in the Book of Acts, and the Old Testament's "480th year" from the Exodus to Solomon "beginning to build the Lord's house"
  33. Book of Life — What is it? How do I get in it? 
  34. Bright Young People — a London Society c.1924-1931
  35. Buddha, Confucius, Seth and Larry — words/last words
  36. Caesar Augustus decree made about 1 BC for the Jewish customs, their holy days, and their "highest god"
  37. Cain and Abel, Enoch and Enosh, Iysh and Ishshah, Adam and Adamah
  38. Calendar History
  39. Canada and US — some history
  40. Canon — in Greek Kanon "any straight rod or bar, rule, standard of excellence" (see Cane (n.)). In Hebrew Qanah means "acquire, fixed in place" with Qanna meaning "jealousy". In classical Latin, "measuring line, rule". In late Latin, "decree of the church, a clergyman living under a rule". From c. 1400 the canon referred to "the Scriptures, the books of the Bible accepted by the Christian church," also extended to secular books of admitted excellence or supremacy.
  41. Catholic from two Greek words "Kata" (through out) and "Holos" (the whole) i.e. universal teachings. First written as a word about 110AD by St Ignatius of Antioch "Wherever the bishop appears, there let the people be, as wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church."
    The Romans adopted "universus" as its counterpart in Latin — "turned into one" — first used apparently by Cicero 106BC - 43BC in writing about Nature (space and time) "turned into one" entity.

    As a side note, when pronouncing the word "Catholic" in other languages, the letter "h" is silent. Except in the original Greek where the "θ" character was written for the "th" sound, it is spelt "Kaθolikos" and pronounced similar to English. It is similar to the Greek word "Θeos" — meaning "God" — which became "Deus" in Latin.

  42. Cause (as a noun) — in Greek "Charin" — i.e. due to a favourable reason. Frequently translated as "Because" from the French words "Par cause". See the prayer in Ephesians 3:14-21 "For this cause I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family (lineage) in heaven and earth is named, that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man; that Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith;…"
    with that favourable reason based on the judicial "cause" expressed in Ephesians 2:13-22 "But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. For He Himself is our peace, who has made both (Jew and Gentile) one, and has broken down the middle wall of separation, having abolished in His flesh the enmity, that is, the law of commandments contained in ordinances, so as to create in Himself one new man…"

    In Hebrew, various nouns were used

    1. Exodus 23:3 You shall not show favoritism to i.e. magnify the poor (empty) one in their Cause, their Conflict, balancing with
      Exodus 23:6 Do not deny justice to the poor (needy) one in their Cause, their Conflict (rib).
    2. 1 Samuel 17:29 And David said (with regard to Goliath's challenge) "Is there not a Cause, a Word (dabar)?
    3. 1 Chronicles 21:3 And Joab answered, The LORD (Jehovah) make his people an hundred times so many more as they be: but, my lord (Adonai) the king, are they not all my lord's servants? why then does my lord require this thing (tax census)? why will he be a Cause, a Becoming (haya) of trespass (shame) to Israel?

    Cause (as a separate verb) in Biblical Hebrew did not exist, rather the scripture added the Hiphil stem to the applicable verb. And since the time of Christ, Hebrew has used the word "leeg-ROHM", a word in the Old Testament signifying "strong, top, bone".
    In the New Testament in Biblical Greek, poieo, the word "to make or do" was used.

  43. Cave of Shem and Eber — A cave in Safed in Northern Israel attributed to having been used by Shem and Eber to teach the Torah, prior to Moses.
  44. Chapel and Chaplain from the French word for "cape" — story of Martin of Tours, a Roman soldier who cut his cape in two to give to a shivering person and heard the Lord "you have clothed me"
  45. Charismatic
  46. Chess — its Etymology, its Pieces and its Timeline
  47. Chosen (Forever Young)
  48. Christmas Hymns, Carols and Songs
  49. Christopher Columbus — Travelling west to "India" in 1492. Long before Copernicus (1473-1543) Galileo (1564-1642) and Newton (1642-1727) it was known to most scholars that the earth was a sphere.

    See Isaiah 40:22 and this quote from Aristotle "it is the sea which divides as it seems the parts beyond India (The Eastern or Pacific Ocean) from those beyond the Pillars of Hercules (The Rock of Gibraltar i.e. The Atlantic Ocean) and prevents the earth from being inhabited all round". Yes, he said it was round.

    However the Heliocentric concept of it being a "revolving earth" that travelled around the sun found considerable difficulty countering the mainstream Geocentric concept of it being a "stationary earth" which the sun travelled around instead. This was the teaching developed by the aforementioned Aristotle (384BC-322BC), and also Ptolemy (100AD-170AD). Gradually after Copernicus the heliocentric idea of the earth being a part of the Solar System was accepted as a more scientific explanation, and it has been proved by the space flights of the past century.

  50. Chuck Missler (Chuck Smith, Maranatha Music)
  51. Church, God and Jesus's name in numerous languages.
  52. Cities of Refuge — Asylum — Sanctuary
  53. Classes (in Rome and in France) and Political Parties (in UK, US, and Australia)
  54. Code of Hammurabi — with Hammurabi reigning ca 1792 - 1750BC. After the flood ca 2350BC homicide became a capital offence, whether by man or beast Genesis 9:5-6. Other laws came into force within communities. Hammurabi's code was subsequently inscribed in 282 laws with a prologue and epilogue on a large black stone about 2¼ metres high and nearly 2 metres wide at the base. The stone had a relief drawing of two characters at the top, one of whom is seated and appears to be the sun-god Shemesh/Shamash, or possibly Hammurabi, and underneath about 4000 text characters in 44 columns of ancient Babylonian cuneiform writing. Discovered by a French expedition, at Susa in Iran in December 1901. Currently on display at the Louvre in Paris.
  55. Congregation, Gathering from the Latin grex — "flock, herd", Greek agros / agra — "field country farm" / "catch (of fish)", egeiro / agora — "arise" / "marketplace", ago or agonia — "brought" or "strife".
    1. In Luke 5:10 the phrase to "catch men" is in Greek "zo-agreo" meaning to "save, spare, ie gather them alive" e.g. the cry of Rahab in Joshua 2:12-13 in the Greek translation.

      Hebrew is Haya literally "come into being", closely related to Chay or "Life", and Chava or "Eva", Eve, mother of all living.

    2. Click here for the 8 times this word "zo-agreo" was used in the Greek Old Testament
    3. Note too the contrast with zo-agreo in 2 Timothy 2:25-26 - in meekness instructing those that oppose themselves that they may, perhaps, receive repentance and recover themselves out of the devil's snare having been "taken captive" by him at his will.
    4. Click here for the Hebrew words "Heir", "Inheritance", "Possession" and "Dispossession/Poverty" in the Old Testament. The same word.
    5. Finally the Hebrew word for "net" normally inferring entanglement & judgment. The associated verb is lark-had "take" (as in a net).
  56. Conscience (and Compass) — Morals, ethics, the Latin word con-scientia is a loan-translation of Greek syn-eidesis, literally "with-knowledge (know with oneself)" — knowing what is right or wrong.
    See Paul's use of the word in Acts 23:1 "And Paul, earnestly beholding the (Jewish) council, said, Men and brothers, I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day". Later, before Governor Felix in Acts 24:16 "And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence toward God, and toward men."

    The modern Hebrew word for "conscience" and "compass" is מַצְפֵּן (mits-poon). When Hebrew created a word for the physical object called a "compass" – מַצְפֵּן , of the root צ.פ.נ (ts.p.n tsaphan) meaning both "north" (H6828) and "hidden" (H6845) – it employed the same root to create a term for the non-physical entity that guides people towards their destiny, whether good or bad. Used once in the Old Testament in Obadiah 1:6 for Esau's hidden treasure, see Matthew 12:35 Jesus words on (hidden) "treasure of the heart".

  57. Consecrated Life — prayer time with Tony McLennan from Bible League Australia
  58. Constantine — 303-312 AD – 10 years – last and perhaps most terrible of government persecutions of early Church.
  59. Creeds up to the Apostles Creed
  60. Crimson Grub
  61. Critical Text is followed in most modern New Testament translations. It uses the original Greek based mostly on the 4th century Codex Vaticanus and Sinaiticus as published by Westcott Hort in 1881 — and contrasts, to a small degree, with the KJV (King James Version) and NKJV (New King James Version) that were based on 12th and 15th century Greek texts in the Textus Receptus published by Erasmus in 1516.

    With the Old Testament, most modern translations use the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia based on the Leningrad Codex housed at the National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg. The KJV used the Second Rabbinic Bible (Mikraot Gedolot - Great Scriptures) published by Daniel Bomberg in Venice in 1524 with Jacob ben Hayyim as the printer.
    In accordance with Jesus words in Matthew 5:17-20 there have been apparently zero variations in the written Torah (the first five books of Moses) since its Hebrew "template" model was set up by Ezra at the temple in Jerusalem around 400BC, and minimal variations to the Hebrew/Aramaic text with regards to the other books.

  62. Cromwell and Princess Henrietta Maria and Adolf Hitler
  63. Cross & Crucify — in modern Hebrew, Greek, and Latin
  64. Crucifixion — Timeline of the Last Supper, Jesus's Arrest and the Crucifixion
  65. Day — Yowm and its meaning in Hebrew
  66. Desire — Tsuqa (tesh-oo-ka) in its original sense in the Hebrew refers to the "Legs", the "Streets", "Running after", "Overflowing".
    1. With regards to Eve towards her man
      Gen 3:16 To the woman (isha) he said, I will greatly multiply your grief and your conceiving, in grief you shall bring forth children, and your desire (running) shall be towards your man (iysh), and he shall rule over you (be your boss).
    2. Speaking to Cain about sin
      Gen 4:7 If you do well, shall you not be accepted (rise up, have dignity)? and if you do not well, sin lies (as an animal) at the door. And toward you shall be its desire (running), and you shall rule over him (be its boss).
    3. Song of Songs speaking of her Beloved
      Sng 7:10 I am my beloved's and his desire (running) is toward me.
  67. Devil — in old English "Deofol", in Gothic "Diabaulus", an agent noun from Greek diaballein "to slander or attack" literally "to throw across," from dia "across, through" + ballein "to throw"
  68. Diocese from "dia-oikos" — a managed region
  69. Dispensation — Resources meeting Needs. Basic Economics. Stewardship. Nowhere does it say there are "seven dispensations" Corrie Ten Boom, Tramp for the Lord and China.
  70. Dogs from the Hebrew word "Keleb" — meaning to yelp, to attack (at times weaker defenceless animals), and also by euphemism a mild term for a male prostitute. Because dogs devour dead bodies and lick blood, fierce cruel men are spoken of as dogs. The word in Israel was a term of contempt.
  71. Drinking and Watering cf Blood cf Holy Anointing Oil
  72. Driving on the left side of the road. Before the late 1700s, everyone in Europe used to do it. Why did Europe (and the US) change?
  73. Early Creeds
  74. Early Marriages in scripture, from Adam and Eve to Abraham and Sarah
  75. Early Numerals and Measurements
  76. East West North and South
  77. Ecclesia — Citizens Assemblies and Early Church — Kyrie and Lord's House — and Peter
  78. Egyptian Hieroglyphs, the loss of understanding, and the Rosetta Stone — The ancient Egyptians used the distinctive script known today as hieroglyphs (Greek for "sacred words") for thousands of years. Hieroglyphs were written on papyrus, carved in stone on tomb and temple walls, and used to decorate many objects for veneration and daily life use. Altogether there are over 700 different hieroglyphs. The last hieroglyphic inscription in Egypt was written in the 5th century AD and for almost 1500 years after that, the language was unable to be read. The Muslims in Egypt employed Arabic, and the Christians employed Coptic, a script based mainly on the Greek alphabet.

    In 1799, the Rosetta Stone was discovered in Egypt by Napoleon's troops. Dating to the time of Ptolemy V (ca 200BC) it was a trilingual decree issued by the priests to honour the pharaoh, noting that the Ptolemys (305BC - 30BC) were a Greek royal dynasty who were the final dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs. The decree was written in hieroglyphs, in Greek, and in Demotic. Demotic was a cursive script that added extra letters when the Coptic alphabet was created about 100 AD. The discovery of the Rosetta Stone proved to be a crucial link in unlocking the mysteries of Egyptian hieroglyphs, allowing the modern study of Egyptian language to begin.

  79. Epic of Gilgamesh — First full account discovered in 1853 in Nineveh. It was written in Akkadian script on numerous clay tablets, inside the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria circa 600BC. Click here for their timeline. The Nineveh record was compiled between 1300BC and 1000BC, apparently from a record in Ur, circa 2020BC. Ur, Abraham's birthplace, is also famous for the Code of Ur-Nammu click here, the oldest known law code surviving today. Gilgamesh himself was said to be a king of Erech who visited Utnapishtim (Noah) who told him about the great flood. The king's plan had been to discover the secret of eternal life, rumoured to have been granted to Noah given his great age at the visit
  80. Epigrams — John Heywood c. 1497 – c. 1580 was an English writer and Catholic who in 1546 published a list of epigrams in English, many derived from the French, which have since become common parlance, see below. He was the grandfather of Church of England cleric John Donne who in 1624 wrote "No man is an island entire of itself … therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls, it tolls for thee."

    A penny for your thought,   All is well that ends well,   An ill wind that blows no man any good,   Beggars should be no choosers,   Better late than never,   Haste makes waste,   I know on which side my bread is buttered,   Look ere you leap,   Love me, love my dog,   No man ought to look a given horse in the mouth,   One good turn asks another,   Out of sight out of mind,   Rome was not built in one day,   The fat is in the fire,   The more the merrier,   This hits the nail on the head,   Tread a worm on the tail and it must turn again,   Two heads are better than one,   What you have, hold,   When he should get aught, each finger is a thumb,   When the sun shines, make hay,   Would you both eat your cake and have your cake?,   You cannot see the wood for the trees.

  81. Epipipto — Holy Spirit Embrace
  82. Eternity and Thoughts on 1 John 5
  83. Eucharist from "eucharistia" — to give thanks (in response to being "well-favoured")
  84. Evil — Two words for "evil" in New Testament "Kakos"-kakky injury (badness) and "Poneros"-painful punishing break down (cunning or tricky)
  85. Exodus — 1947 event that inspired a Jewish "happier-ending" book in 1958 and a movie in 1960 starring Paul Newman. In July 1947 a ship, the "SS Exodus" sailed from Sète, 200km west of Marseille in southern France, illegally bound for Haifa in Palestine, with 4,515 Jewish "Displaced Persons" following WW2. The ship was boarded by the British outside Haifa, the Jews transferred to three ships and returned to France, but once there they refused to disembark. Eventually they sailed to Hamburg Germany, under British rule at the time, where they were forced to disembark. The Jews, after screening, were then free to leave, but initially found themselves in "Displaced Persons" camps inside Germany. Worldwide outrage followed, and in November 1947 the declaration of an "Arab" state and a "Jewish" state (Israel) in Palestine that would enable unlimited Jewish immigration into Israel, was voted on and formally adopted by the UN. ...
     Kitty        I saw the people on that ship.
                  They're not dangerous. They're just poor, miserable people.
                  Why can't you let them go?
     General      You must understand that we British have shown, throughout our history...
         extraordinary talent for troublesome commitments.
                  Palestine is a British mandate imposed upon us...
         the League of Nations...
                  ...which makes us responsible for keeping peace in the area.
                  The Arabs simply won't keep the peace if we allow further Jewish immigration.
     Kitty        I don't know much about the mandate.
                  But I do know the Jews were promised a homeland in Palestine.
     General      During the First World War,
                  Britain needed and accepted Jewish support...
                  ...from all over the world.
                  In return...
                  ...the Balfour Declaration of 1917 made such a promise.
                  That promise was reconfirmed during World War ll.
                  This chap Ben Canaan probably wasn't lying when he said he fought with us.
                  Thousands of Palestinians did.
     Kitty        How can you promise something and then not deliver it?
     General     England was fighting for her life in 1917.
                  Nations are very like people in such circumstances.
                  They make promises they're not immediately able to fulfill.
                  During that same crisis, we made the Arabs certain assurances.
                  Hence, they have their claims, too.
                  The Arabs are fanatics on the subject of Jewish immigration.
                  Just now, we need their goodwill.
     Kitty        -How is it ever going to end? -I don't know.
                  The whole question now is before the United Nations.
                  I hope they solve it.
                  The sooner I stop operating detention camps, the happier I'll be.
                  That goes for every British officer and soldier I know.
  86. Eye has not seen, nor ear heard, neither has entered into the heart of man, the things which God has prepared for them that love him. 1 Corinthians 2:9

    Paul is quoting the words of Isaiah 64:4-5 and he is specifically referring to men like Pontius Pilate, see 1Co 2:8, re the princes of this world, none of them could get the handle on this.
    Earlier he said "I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified. I was with you in weakness, fear, much trembling. My speech, my preaching was not with enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, that your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God." 1Co 2:2-5
    He follows it by saying "But God has revealed these things to us (that he has prepared) by his Spirit, for the Spirit searches all things, yea, the deep things of God." 1Co 2:10
    In modern times there are many evangelists, women like Corrie Ten Boom, men like Brother Andrew and David Wilkerson and others who have in many ways in fear and trembling, reached many souls, Hallelujah .

  87. Faith — in Hebrew "Emuwn" (based on Aman or Amen), in Greek "Pistis", in Latin "Fides" Hebrews 11:1 Now faith is the underlying substance of things hoped for, the admonishing of facts not (yet) being seen.


    "underlying substance of things hoped for"
    in Latin Substantia sperandorum
    in Greek Hypostasis elpizomenon
    (Present passive participle)

    "the admonishing of facts not (yet) being seen"
    Latin Rerum argumentum non parentum
    Greek Pragmaton elegchos (reproof) not blepomenon

    for more on "substance", see Hebrews 1:3 with reference to God's Son
    His Son is the radiance of his glory, the character (i.e. stamped expression) of his substance, in Latin "figura substantiae", in Greek "charakter hypostaseos"

    becoming "Feid" in French, "Faith" in English, related to "Photons" (phenomena, faeries), probably related to the French word "Feu", in English "Fire" originally based on the Greek word "Pyr", and possibly a close relative "Power", a word traditionally related to Indo-European "Poti", potency. The Potter. The Father 

    See too Pauvre Paul (Small), Sergius Paulus (Servant-Small), God's hand upon Elymas the Magi (Great one) for not ceasing (pausing) from his sin.
    Acts 13:7-12 see too Isaiah 61:1.

  88. Fate — from the Latin word "fatum", ultimately means "Spoken"
  89. Feasts — Feast (literally Appointed Time) of Trumpets
  90. Fees — (and other old Anglo-Saxon words)
  91. Fellowship — Good old 1 Corinthians
  92. Fig Tree — Hebrew T'ayna with early figs Pag and in the Greek New Testament Syke (Soo-kay), becoming "Ficus" in Latin, with Latin "Pax" (Pacify, Pay) "Fix" & "Figures" perhaps closely related.
  93. Football Timeline — Aussie Rules, Gaelic Football, Grid Iron, Rugby League, Rugby Union, Soccer
  94. Foreknowledge vs Fortune Telling
  95. Four Horsemen, Simon the Pharisee, Judas, and Paul's attitude to taking up a collection
  96. Four Living Creatures, four main tribes (around the tabernacle), and the four points on the Hebrew compass: east (towards the sunrise), south (strong hand on the right), north (hidden covering on the left), and west (the roar, the Mediterranean Sea behind)
  97. Future — its etymology. In modern Hebrew the word is "atiyd" to be made Fit (and ready) for what is coming. Aligned with Love that bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things 1 Cor 13:7
    Note that in Biblical Hebrew verbs do not have a "Future" tense per se, verbs are perfect (i.e. over and done with), present (as a participle), or imperfect (in some ways a mystery, yet to be worked out).


    Extract from Hebrew "Vav/Waw" letter
    Vav at the beginning of the word has several possible meanings:

    1. vav conjunctive (Vav Hachibur, literally "the Vav of Connection" — chibur means "joining", or "bringing together") connects two words or parts of a sentence; it is a grammatical conjunction meaning 'and' . This is the most common usage.
    2. vav consecutive (Vav Hahipuch, literally "the Vav of Reversal" — hipuch means "inversion"), mainly biblical, is commonly mistaken for the previous type of vav; it indicates consequence of actions and reverses the tense of the verb following it:
      • when placed in front of a verb in the imperfect tense, it changes the verb to the perfect tense. For example, yomar means 'he will say' (in a continuing sense) and vayomar means 'he said' (in consequence)
      • when placed in front of a verb in the perfect, it changes the verb to the imperfect tense. For example, ahavtah means 'you loved', and ve'ahavtah means 'you will love' (in consequence).

    (Note: older, Biblical Hebrew did not have "tense" in a temporal sense, "perfect," and "imperfect" instead denoting aspect of completed or continuing action. Modern Hebrew verbal tenses have developed closer to their Indo-European counterparts, mostly having a temporal quality rather than denoting aspect. As a rule, Modern Hebrew does not use the "Vav Consecutive" form.)

  98. Gad in the Old Testament, translated as a "Troop" and "Fortune" or even "Daimon" in the Septuagint in Isaiah 65:11

    As an actual name, Gad appears 70 times in the Old Testament

    1. seventh son of Jacob by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, and full brother of Asher.
    2. the tribe descended from Gad
    3. a prophet during the time of David who appears to have joined David when in the hold and then reappears in connection with the punishment for taking a census. He also assisted in the arrangements for the musical service of the "house of God"
  99. Garden Tomb, Calvary, Maps of the old city and Modern Jerusalem
  100. Gehenna — the valley of fire for refuse and dishonoured corpses in the days of Jesus
  101. Genealogies of Jesus
  102. Genesis 2 and 3 — Nakedness, Smoothness, and Shame
  103. Gentile — A member of a nation-family, in the Latin "gentilis", in the Greek "ethnikos", in the Hebrew "goy". Each society taught that members of its own nation (or family) were normal civilised people, "gentle", "gentlemanly", but members of nations (in general) were outsiders, foreigners, with languages that were "barbaric".
    Seen in Genesis 12:2 when God tells Abraham he would make of him a great nation or "goy" גּוֹי Play. Then, in Acts when Paul explained how God had told him to Go, for I will send you far away from here to the "goyim" גּוֹיִים Play, his inferred rejection of Israel and acceptance of "barbarians" brought a wild reaction from the listeners. Acts 22:21.
  104. George — comes from two Greek words "Ge" meaning "earth" and "Ergon" meaning "work" — the Greek word for a "farmer". St George was a Christian soldier who defied the Emperor Diocletian's edict to recant his faith in 303 and was martyred. He became the patron saint of many countries, including England under King Edward III in 1350. In 1863 George I of Greece (Prince Philip's grandfather) became a popular king after their independence from Turkey, reigning for 50 years.
  105. Glory, Weight, Gravity — Law of Relativity and Four Forces in Physics

  106. Goad — An iron spike, nail at the end of a rod about two or more metres long.
  107. God's 7 Day Week vs Blind Evolution
  108. Good — four words in Greek "Kalos", "Agathos", "Eu", and "Chrestos"
  109. Greatest Commandment — Love God with Heart, Soul, Mind and Strength
  110. Greek History — Solon's Democracy to Alexander the Great
  111. Happening — stuff that happens to happen to people
  112. Hedonism — from the Greek word "Hedeos", translated as "Mint, Gladness, Sweet" see James 4:3 You ask make your case, cause and receive not, because you ask badly, in order to spend it on your "pleasure" that just turns into fat.
  113. History of Calendar
  114. History of Money
  115. Holy, Sanctified, Set Apart QDS — in Hebrew written as H6942 qadash, H6918 qadowsh, H6922 qaddiysh, H6944 qodesh, and H6946 Kadesh and H6947 Kadesh-Barnea where the Israelites were stuck for 38 years. QDS "s,sh"-shemesh-"sun" Patience.

    See Hebrew alphabet re basic letter meanings. Hebrew words near by "Qadash"

    1. East (sunrise) QDM "m"-mene-"counting, mark" — antiquity, aforetime, met, confront H6923 qadam, H6917 qaduwm, H6924 qedem, H6926 qidmah, H6921 qadiym, H6925 qodam, H6927 qadmah, H6928 qadmah, H6930 qadmown, H6931 qadmowniy, H6933 qadmay. Rational.
    2. Burn (fever) QDH "h"-hay-"life (after death)" — H6919 qadach, H6920 qaddachath. Fire.
    3. Ashy, Sackcloth, Mourning (Kedar, Kidron) QDR "r"-rosh-"head (in heaviness, blackness)" — H6937 qadar, H6938 Qedar, H6939 Qidrown, H6940 qadruwth, H6941 qdoranniyth
    4. Head (bowed) QDD "d"-dalit-"doorway, back of a head and neck" — H6915 qadad, H6936 qodqod. Worship.
    5. Quasi-sacred Prostitute (devoted to destruction) QDS "s,sh"-shemesh-"sun" — H6945 qadesh (male) H6948 qdeshah (female). Passion.
  116. Homosexual, first used as a word about 1880
  117. Hope — "Expectancy" based on Latin "Spero" ("spirit", "prosperity"). In Sanskrit "Sphayate" (plump or fat). In Hebrew "Tiqva" (a Line or cord) based on "qava" (Waiting). In Greek "Elpis" (the spirit of hope in Pandora all-endowed one's jar). In Dutch and old Germanic Hopen, possibly derived from Greek "Kupto" ("cup", stoop, bend forward). John 18:11 "The cup which my Father has given me shall I not drink it" Romans 8:24-26 "Who hopes for what he sees"
  118. Hormones comes from a word that means "to impel or set in motion" in Greek, with hormonal response corresponding to the Latin word for instinct", that which "instigates" (arouses, excites) when pricked e.g. a maternal/paternal impulse. Click here for Bible usage of the Greek word "hormao", translated as "run violently" or "rush" in the New Testament.

    The first use of the word "Hormones" in English was in 1905 by James Starling, a professor of physiology at University College in London, defining chemical messengers in the bloodstream. Much of the stimulus comes from the base of the brain and the pituitary gland.

  119. Horse — Hebrew meaning is "Skip" (for joy). Top speed about 88 kph. Ridden by cavalry and charioteers, the wealthy, the nobles, and the King in Old Testament times and also in the Book of Revelation.
    Ass or donkey — Beasts of burden. Top speed about 24 kph. Ridden by Jesus when he entered Jerusalem.
  120. Hosanna — initially Osanna, Ωσαννά, the Greek rendition of the children crying in the temple "Hosi'a na" — "Save, now / please" Matthew 21:15 quoting Psalms 118:25. It is a variation of Yeshua, Jesus's name in Aramaic, with the first letter Omega (capital "O") being the last letter in the Greek alphabet, and the last letter "a" being the first letter in the Greek alphabet. See Jesus's words in Revelation 22:13 “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End/Goal (Archetype and Finance), the First and the Last (Prototype and Newest)
  121. Host from Latin "hostia" — holy victim, or Christ ca.1300
    Used to translate Greek "Stratia" (Encampment, Soldiers, Army) in Luke 2:13 (good army in Heaven) and Acts 7:42 (not good army in Heaven). Contrast too with the other English meaning of "Host" — based on "hospes" in Latin — showing hospitality to strangers or guests see Rom 16:23 and the innkeeper-host in Luk 10:35
  122. Hudson Taylor — Missionary to China. Referred to as the Father of modern missions. While stressing the need to preach widely, Hudson Taylor urged local churches to establish and mature and for church buildings to be of Chinese not foreign design.
  123. Human — Early use of the pronouns "he" and "she", semen and sperm, hormones, and bacteria colonies in the gut
  124. Humour, from Latin humor ‘moisture’, 'bodily fluids' changing in the late 16th century to its modern meaning where "humoring someone" means "providing amusement, teasing and sport"
  125. Hur, Bible men in the Background
  126. Identity based on French Identité (14c.) from the Latin words "ibidem" and "idem" meaning "It is the same"
  127. Image is based on the Latin word Imitari meaning to imitate or copy
  128. India — its ancient name "Bhaa-rat" as written in eight of its most widely spoken languages and their background
  129. Inflation — its History
  130. Japanese — some background to their scripts
  131. Jealousy — Zeal — Envy — Qanna (Hebrew) and Zelos (Greek)
  132. Jeremiah 29 and living in Babylon
  133. Jerusalem — its History with maps to the "Old City", plus extra sketches of Herod's Temple.
  134. Jesus's Family — Cousins,Aunties
  135. Jesus Life on Earth 2 BC — 31 AD
  136. Jesus Pre-Existence

    Hebrews 13:8 The same yesterday, and to day, and for ever "eis aion" into eons

  137. Jewish surname history
  138. Jubilee Years


  139. Kabbalah used heavily in Daniel, Ezra and Chronicles where it is translated as "Because" or "Forasmuch as" or that moment when Gad speaks to David "Choose". Earlier in scripture, translated as "held", "before", "received".
  140. Keep — Guard — Being responsible — Shamar
  141. Key Verse Favorites
  142. Kisses and other interesting subjects
  143. Knights and their fame as the Knights Templar in Jerusalem and Europe starting in 1119. Followed by the legend of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table in 1155.
  144. Kyrie — It's Christmas, so I just updated my page on Kyrie Eleison and that old chap, Cyrus, with some extra background.
  145. Lawrence of Arabia — TE Lawrence (1888 - 1935), a "James Bond" character who was a British Intelligence Army Officer in Cairo, Aqaba, and Damascus during WW1 (1915 - 1918).
  146. Let's Go Dancing — Choros
  147. Logos (original meaning) — The Divine Intimate Reason implicit in the cosmos, ordering it and giving it form and meaning.

    The idea of the logos in Greek thought harks back at least to the pre-Socratic philosopher Heraclitus, who discerned in the cosmic process a Logos analogous to the reasoning power in humans. The Greek Stoics defined the Logos as an active rational and spiritual principle that permeated all reality, calling it Providence, Nature, God and the Soul of the universe, with many seminal logoi that are contained in the universal Logos.
    In the last book click here for the 12 verses (14 times) the name "Jesus" (the Logos of God) appears in Revelation.

    Logos (Loyalty) and other derived English terms — Law, Love Life Left (weakness) and Lift, Lever

  148. Lord (and lady) — the word "lord" is derived from the Old English word "hlāford" which comes from "hlāfweard" meaning "loaf-ward" or "bread-keeper". In Scotland it became "Laird", while the title of "lord of the manor" came into use in England after 1066. While his lady, from hlāfweardige to hlāfdige to hlâfdie and finally lady, is a kneader of bread, of "dough" where the "g" is of course silent.
    A related word "landlord" became a surname late 13c.
  149. Love and Truth and Marriage (and soul and spirit)
  150. Lucifer's name — from Isaiah 14:12 "king of Babylon" plus Ezekiel 28:12-15 "ruler of Tyre"
  151. Makeup of Man
  152. Male and Female
  153. Marriage and Betrothal — Its meaning and its history in early scripture, in modern Israel, in England, and Australia
  154. Mass from "Dismissal" — Go forth
  155. Mention from the Latin word "mens, mentis" and the Greek word "mneia" — the mind. Click here for Paul's use of the word in his prayers for the church. Click here for all New Testament related words "memories, remembrances, even sepulchres and tombs" — the "redeemed" past that is ever present in God, in his unchanging nature. Jesus Christ, the redeemer, the same yesterday, today, and tomorrow Hebrews 13:8. All things working together for good for them that love God Romans 8:28.
  156. Mishneh based on Shanah — Second Part of Jerusalem, Copy (of the Law), Study by Repetition, Double

    Mishnah also refers to the Second (or Oral) Law. It was codified by Judah bin Nasi (the Prince) in 189 AD in Northern Israel after the Jews were forbidden entrance to Jerusalem on pain of death (following the revolt by Jewish leader Bar Kochba in 132 - 135 AD). The Mishnah was written to ensure their traditional oral customs were not lost. It groups these laws under six basic headings: 1. Blessings Givings and Agricultural laws 2. Festivals 3. Marriage Divorce and Nazirite vows 4. Civil and Criminal laws 5. Holy things and Dietary laws 6. Purity and Impurity.

  157. Motoring History — Motor Cars and Petrol
    1. Early History — Ten Motor Car Photos from 1885-1927
    2. Filling Stations — Various Names for Petroleum Benzin, Benzina, Moto Essence, Petrol, Gasoline
    3. Current Status — Australia and Worldwide Petrol and Diesel, Electric and Hybrid
  158. Mt Sinai — The Law, and That Fellowship Issue - Good old 1 Corinthians
  159. Music — its pentatonic, diatonic and chromatic scales, Chinese musicology, and A440 — the audio frequency reference presently used for orchestra tuning. What does all that mean ?
  160. Musical Timeline — Do-Re-Mi Notes Clefs and Staff
  161. Myers Briggs Psychological Types and Work Place Stats
  162. Nicodemus, Nicolas of Antioch, Nicolaus of Damascus, and Nicolaitans
  163. Numbers and Letters
  164. Numbers and Measurements
  165. Numbering God's People
  166. Nun from "nana" — a term of family affection for an older lady
  167. Offerings — Five Offerings in Leviticus
  168. Parables and Proverbs "rule" with their special identities, their "likenesses" — in Hebrew "masal" (mar-shall) — even as the Sun "rules" over the day.
  169. Paradise and the Third Heaven
  170. Parish from "para-oikos" — the administrative "part" of a diocese (or bishopric) that has its "own building" (or church).
  171. Passion — Suffering — Feeling Under Pressure — Pascho and Pascha
  172. Passover — its layout and its dates in Israel in 2024
  173. Passport
  174. Paul Brand and "Granny" Brand (and pain and Cain and Abel)
  175. Paul's Missionary Journeys one per map plus a full map with original Bible names
  176. Peace — Irony — Shalom (Hebrew) and Eirene (Greek)
  177. Person — Derived from the Latin word "Persona"-the appearance (or mask) that one speaks through. It was used to translate the Greek word Prosopon in the New Testament, and in English translated as "Face", also "Presence" and "Countenance". Click here for those NT verses on God not having any "Personal Favorites" when it comes to peoples outward show.
    A related word "Individual" meaning a single human being, from Latin "individualis"-indivisible, came into use in English about 1640.
  178. Pneumatikos vs Psuchikos — Spiritual vs Natural
  179. Polynesia — Micronesia, Melanesia, and Indonesia
  180. Power and Potential —
  181. Praise and Worship
  182. Priest — in old English "Preost" is related to the French word "Provost" (where the v is pronounced as a w), and the High German word "Probost". Both are related to the Latin word "Praepositus" — Front Row (Forward) and the Greek word "Presbus" — "Pres" (Front) and "Bu" (ox) — (an Ox) leading the way. From which we also derive the word "Presbyterian", normally translated in English as Elder. In the Vulgate Bible the Latin word "Senior" was used, their word for an Elder or Older man.

    Priest in Old Testament Hebrew (and translated in the Greek Septuagint as "Hiereus") is the word "Kohen" — Officer (of God), a title conferred on Melchizedek in early Jerusalem at the time of Abraham, Jethro in Midian at the time of Moses, and then on Aaron (Moses's older brother) and his descendants.

    Priest in New Testament Greek is the word Hiereus from "Hieros" — Holy One — the one who points the way to connectedness or Wholeness (Holiness). In the Latin Vulgate the word "Sacerdos" was used, for the one who did Holy or Sacred Acts. See too Hierosolyma — Jerusalem, "Pointing the Way out to Peace" from the Hebrew words "Yara" and "Shalom". Also Hieron, the "Holy Temple" (contrasted with Hagion, the "Holy Place").

    "High" Priest is Archiereus — Actions of Piety of Christ in Hebrews 5

  183. Prophet — based on the Greek word Prophetes used to mean an inspired speaker or poet. The word "fate" also comes from the base of this word, and many words relating to speech and enlightenment such as fame, fantasy, fairy, pant, epiphany, phenomenon, phase, emphasis, phantom, phone, photo, beacon, banner, banish, and even blame click here.
    The equivalent Hebrew word is Nabi (or Navi) click here for its use in the Old Testament and the plural noun in the Jewish religion is Neviim
  184. Psalm 137:9 — Devastation — Dashing little ones upon the rocks
  185. Publicans, and Harlots — the definitive statement
  186. Pyramids — with Herodotus writing about them in Greek ca 400BC, with the Greek word "pyramides" probably derived from ancient Egyptian pr-m-ws "come forth from height". Click here for the Great Pyramid that preceded the flood, said by Josephus to have been built by the children of Seth. Antiquities i,S2.3
  187. Python — from Greek word "Putho" - to enquire. Related via Latin to the words "putrid" and "ponder" and "foundation". Also a place, later called Delphi, an ancient sanctuary in Greece where people sought out oracles. And an evil spirit, as seen in Acts 16:16.
  188. Rabbis and Princes and Scribes and Pharisees — The Jewish Council — protecting the Law and all the Traditions of Judaism over the past 2,000 years
  189. Rapture and Mysteries
  190. Religion — according to Cicero in Rome 106BC - 43BC, Again Read (Relegere in Latin) from a platform (pulpit) the links joining the human with the divine. Select Carefully. See too Ligare in Latin - bind.
    Translated as Threskos in Greek (trembling) from throeo, trouble and tribulation (throeomai-wailing).

    Noting James 1:26-27 Those who consider themselves religious and yet do not keep a tight rein on their tongues deceive themselves, and their religion is worthless. Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to visit the fatherless and the widows in their affliction (i.e. trouble) and to keep oneself unspotted by the cosmos (world).
    and Colossians 2:18 Do not let anyone who delights in self-abasement and religion (worship) of the angels disqualify you. Such a person also goes into great detail about what they have seen, they are puffed up for no reason by their fleshly mind.

  191. Religious Affiliations in Australia 2021 (+ 2011, 2016)
  192. Repentance — A Changed Worldview — Nacham (Hebrew) and Metanoia (Greek)
  193. Reprove and Rebuke — in the definition of Faith — the substance of things being hoped for, the reproof of things not being seen.
  194. Righteous among the Nations — the story of Miep Gies (and Anne Frank)
  195. "Risen" — the movie
  196. Sacrifice from "sacred" and "facere" — to make sacred for God
    in Greek "thusos" — smoke and fire

    Closely related to the English word "Saint"

    1. Hebrew "Hasidic" H2623

      Holy One, Saints, Merciful, Godly

      Preserve my soul; for I am holy Psalm 86

      Let your priests be clothed with righteousness; and let your saints H2623 shout for joy.

      The good (man) H2623 is perished out of the earth Micah 7:2

      In Hasidism, Jewish Hasidic thought drew heavily on "Kabbalah" H6901 sowing and reaping, or more literally "connections and consequences" and to an extent is a popularization of it.

      By the 1860s in Eastern Europe a new type of "Rebbe-Rabbi" emerged, one who was both a completely traditional "halakhic" authority as well as spiritual.

      Hebrew word "Halakha" - Walk H1980 (Used 500 times) also "Yalak" - Go H3212 (Used 1,043 times)

      Following God's commandments "Tsava" H6680 (verb) Command
      Bar Mitzvah Son of the commandment "Mits-vah" "Mits-vot" H4687 (noun)

      Click here for more

    2. Greek "Hosios" G3741
    3. and of course Latin "Sanctus" later in English "Sanctions" meaning set apart as "approved" or "disapproved"
  197. School — its etymology
  198. See — five shades of meaning
  199. Seeking God
  200. Sevens and Sixes (in Hebrew) — and the Sabbath rest
  201. Seven Churches in Revelation
  202. Seven Spirits in the Book of Revelation and in Isaiah 11:2
    The first spirit is the Spirit of Jehovah (God) followed by three couplets representing the Future (Wisdom and Understanding), the Present (Counsel and Might), the Past (Knowledge and of Fear of the Lord).
  203. Sex without Commitment verses in the Old Testament — translated as harlot, whoredom, fornication in old King James English. Note that H6948 sacred (female) and H6945 (male) prostitutes in Genesis 38:21 and Deuteronomy 23:17 refers to those literally "set apart".
  204. Shekinah — According to that link, the Hebrew noun Shekinah is an abstract noun from the verb shakan, "to dwell, rest". It is a central term and concept in rabbinic literature, expressing God's presence in the Temple and with his people. Click here for its use as a verb in the Old Testament, particularly Exodus 25:8 and its use of H4720 and H6948 to refer to a sacred place or sanctuary literally "set apart".
  205. Sins and Trespasses and Debts
    1. Sins (not doing what I should) — Chata in Hebrew and Hamartia in Greek. Meaning "to miss the mark", with its additional meaning of a "Sin offering".
    2. Trespasses (the mirror image, or doing what I should not) — Asham in Hebrew and Paraptoma in Greek. Meaning "have a side-slip", "commit an offence", or "fall away". The French word "Trespasser" meaning to Pass across or Enter (a place) unlawfully, was first attested in forest laws of Scottish Parliament c. 1455.
      Click here for further background to the Hebrew word "asham", with its additional meanings of "Guilt offering".

      Note, the etymology of the English word "Ashamed" is thought by many to be derived from an ancient word "skem" or "kem" meaning "covering". With the Hebrew word "asham" also requiring "physical covering" in Genesis 3:7 and Genesis 3:21, the link between the words is too obvious to be simply a coincidence. See too these variations on "shame" aischun in the Biblical Greek in the New Testament. Today the word is pronounced as "aischos" (ay-skos) in Modern Greek.

    3. Debts (owing and being owed) — from the root word Opheilo in Greek, as used in the Lord's Prayer, forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors. Regarding the word "debts" in Matthew 6:12 becoming "trespasses" in Matthew 6:14-15 (in Hebrew "asham", in English "sham" and probably "scam") Jesus's accompanying statement shows the words meant the same.
  206. Skateboarding (and e-scooters)
  207. Slave has its origins in the word Slav. The Slavs, who inhabited a large part of Eastern Europe, were taken as slaves by the Muslims of Spain during the ninth century AD. The word became "sclavus" in Medieval Latin, and "esclave" in French, with Shakespeare popularizing "slave" in English through his numerous plays. While it is commonly used in modern translations of the Bible, the King James Version uses it just twice click here for the references, preferring the terms "servant" and "bond-servant" instead.
  208. South Africa timeline, "Amazing Grace", anti-slavery, Mr Hitler, and Nelson Mandela
  209. Swearing an Oath — Shaba (Hebrew) and Horkos (Greek)
  210. Synagogue is a Greek word meaning literally "place of assembly".
    1. Israelis use the Hebrew term "beyt knesset" meaning "house of assembly". with the term "kenesa" also used, derived from old Aramaic.
    2. Ashkenazi Jews have traditionally used the Yiddish term "shul" (cognate with the German Schule, 'school') in everyday speech, originally a Greek word.
    3. Some Reform Jews use the word "temple", originally a Latin word, in Hebrew "ha-kal", probably based on ya-kol, "having the capacity".

    The Greek word synagogue is used in English to cover all of the preceding possibilities.

  211. Synoptic Gospels — a phrase apparently first used by eminent German rationalist Johann Griesbach in 1776, the year in which he published A Synopsis of the Gospels of Matthew, Mark & Luke, a work that launched modern gospel criticism. Since that time these three gospels have been referred to as "the synoptics."

    1. Note, according to Papias in 120AD, Mark, Peter's interpreter, "took especial care not to omit anything he'd heard, and not to put anything fictitious into the statements". So, while Griesbach considered Mark to have been written last, a somewhat minimalist précis of Matthew and Luke, Peter was held in great awe, bestowing the Holy Spirit.
      Gottlob Storr in 1786 declared Mark was written first, in opposition.
    2. Jerome in 382AD "Matthew did first of all compose a Gospel of Christ in Judaea in the Hebrew dialect for the benefit of those of the circumcision who had believed. Who translated it after that in Greek is not sufficiently ascertained." That accounts for the extra Q source statements in Matthew.
    3. Whether Matthew in Greek preceded or followed Luke's gospel is irrelevant. While some of the recorded facts have differences in perception based on memory recollection, there is no inaccuracy, and the three gospels were very keen to copy exactly the same Greek phrase found in the other wherever possible. Give the Holy Spirit full room to move.
  212. Tabernacle and the Temple in the days of Solomon, Zerubbabel and Herod
  213. Table of Nations Josephus and World's Nations Today
  214. Talmud from Lamad — teach, train or learn, and Malmadox goad
  215. Tartarus — A Greek word, not found in the Hebrew, used by Peter in 2 Peter 2:4 and used twice in the Greek Old Testament the Septuagint. See too Tannin and Leviathan
  216. Taxes and Pensions — History in Australia, in Scripture, and worldwide.
  217. Temptation — being stressed, pierced to the limits.
  218. Terah — Father of Delay
  219. Terra Nullius — its background
    1. Terra is the Latin word for land (in general)
    2. Territorium is more specifically, the Latin word for the land around (or sometimes within) the boundaries of a town i.e. its territory
    3. In 1888 "Territorium Nullius" - nobody's territory - was first used as a Latin expression at the Berlin conference in Germany in reference to unclaimed territory around settlements in Africa
    4. In 1909 "Terra Nullius" - nobody's land - referred to an unclaimed polar region known as Svalbard by Camille Piccioni. Today polar regions are the subject of ongoing disputes by Russia, Canada, Denmark and Norway
    5. In 1992 "Terra Nullius" became a straw man argument made by Eddie Mabo's lawyers with specific reference to the Torres Straits Islands, claiming that the Queensland Government in 1971 had used the context of "Crown Land" to infer a prior "Terra Nullius" or "Nobody's Land" situation was applicable when James Cook made that declaration in 1770 at Cape York "claiming the territory of New South Wales in the name of the British Crown". But the land was occupied.
      So as a "straw man" argument in 1992, it could immediately be demolished by lawyers.

    However, back in 1770 the British Empire, the French Empire, the German Empire, the Ottoman Empire, etc were major world-wide institutions. The British Government knew that the occupants of the land were entitled to Common law rights, and that Cook's declaration would inevitably involve granting them their rights. The situation then was more complicated than a Polar region "Terra Nullius" debate. And on many levels the situation still is today. A kingdom, an empire, a nation divided against itself cannot stand. Matthew 12:25

  220. That Letter J
  221. The Trinity — thoughts on the nature of the Godhead expressed in three passages:
    1. 1 Corinthians 8:6 To us there is one God (Deus), the Father, out of whom (ex) are all things, and we (are made) for him; and one Lord (Dominus) Jesus Christ, through whom (dia) are all things, and we through him.
    2. Ephesians 2:18 For through Jesus we both Jews and Gentiles have access in one Spirit to the Father.
    3. 1 John 5:7 For there are three that bear testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word (Logos), and the Holy Spirit, and these three are one.
  222. This Generation
  223. U235 and U238 in Uranium — some basic notes
  224. Urim and Thummim
  225. US and Canada — some history
  226. Water related to Greek word "Hudor/Hydor", in Dutch "water", German "wasser", Russian "voda".
  227. Wealth — better than any sermon, that conversation on wealth between Luke Skywalker and Han Solo in the first Star Wars — A New Hope.
                   Suddenly Artoo begins to whistle and beep a blue streak.  
                   Luke goes over to him.
                             What is it?
                             I'm afraid I'm not quite sure, sir. 
                             He says "I found her", and keeps 
                             repeating, "She's here."
                             Well, who... who has he found?
                   Artoo whistles a frantic reply.
                             Princess Leia.
                             The princess? She's here?
                             Princess? What's going on?
                             Level five. Detention block A A-twenty-
                             three. I'm afraid she's scheduled to 
                             be terminated.
                             Oh, no! We've got to do something.
                             What are you talking about?
                             The droid belongs to her. She's the 
                             one in the message... We've got to 
                             help her.
                             Now, look, don't get any funny ideas. 
                             The old man wants us to wait right 
                             But he didn't know she was here. 
                             Look, will you just find a way back 
                             into the detention block?
                             I'm not going anywhere.
                             They're going to execute her. Look, 
                             a few minutes ago you said you didn't 
                             want to just wait here to be captured. 
                             Now all you want to do is stay.
                             Marching into the detention area is 
                             not what I had in mind.
                             But they're going to kill her!
                             Better her than me...
                             She's rich.
                   Chewbacca growls.
                             Yes. Rich, powerful! Listen, if you 
                             were to rescue her, the reward would 
                             Well more wealth that you can imagine.
                             I don't know, I can imagine quite a 
                             You'll get it!
                             I better!
                             You will...
                             All right, kid. But you'd better be 
                             right about this.
                   Han looks at Chewie, who grunts a short grunt.
                             All right.
                             What's your plan?
                             Uh... Threepio, hand me those binders 
                             there will you?
                   Luke moves toward Chewbacca with electronic cuffs.
                             Okay. Now, I'm going to put these on 
                   Chewie lets out a hideous growl.
                             Okay. Han, you put these on.
                   Luke sheepishly hands the binders to Han.
                             Don't worry, Chewie. I think I know 
                             what he has in mind.
                   The Wookiee has a worried and frightened look on his face as 
                   Han binds him with the electronic cuffs.
                             Master Luke, sir! Pardon me for 
                             asking... but, ah... what should 
                             Artoo and I do if we're discovered 
                             Lock the door!
                             And hope they don't have blasters.
                             That isn't very reassuring.
    Click here for the entire script. Use Ctrl-F to find specific lines 
  228. Week — in major languages worldwide.
  229. Westminster Confession — in England's Parliament, written in 1646, that was designed to reform the Church of England
    "There is no other Lord of the church but the Lord Jesus Christ.
    Nor can the pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof, but is that Antichrist, man of sin, son of perdition (ruin), that exalts himself in the church against Christ and all that is called God."

    And thus since 1701, all British monarchs have been required to be in communion with the Church of England (and not with the Church of Rome). However, Prince Charles, who has made comments about being "Defender of faiths" rather than "faith" has seen a new change in 2015, in which spouses of Roman Catholics are now eligible to become monarch.
  230. Willingness — 2 Peter 3:9 God is not slow concerning his promise but long suffering toward us, not willing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance ("change of nous"). Contrast that more objective Greek word Boule in Latin "velle") with the more subjective Thelo "Choice, Juice, Justice".
    Click here for further thoughts, contrasting Hebrew thought with Chinese thought.
  231. Wisdom vs Knowledge and James 4
  232. Woman in adultery, Conscience, Evolution, and Richard Dawkins
  233. World and further thoughts on 1 John 5
  234. World Religions — Colossians 1:15-18, Colossians 2:6-23, Romans 1:28 and Apollos
  235. Yin and Yang in Chinese registers — plus the four tones in Mandarin


FYI, if you use an iPhone and you click on the Play icon and the website just hangs there, you may need to clear your website history and data. This should also improve Safari's performance.
To do this
1. On the iPhone, select Settings, then select Safari. Tap the link Clear History and Website data.
2. Turn off your iPhone, then turn it on again.

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