Week in other languages

First, in English, it is associated with Gothic "wiko" (and Latin "vicis") in Luke 1:8 in the Gothic Bible, when it refers to the arrangement of Zechariah's "week", his "turn" of looking after the temple.

In Latin, "Vicis" means "time of someone's taking over" e.g. vicissitude, vice versa.
Also then of yielding, giving way, and thus even "weak"-ness e.g. vices.

German Woche (vock-er) - week, schwach (Shvark) - weak with similar words in Norwegian, Swedish, and Dutch.

The gradual process towards Christian tradition and ritual was underscored in the year 321, when, on the 7th of March, Roman Emperor Constantine decreed that dies Solis, or “the day of the sun,” should be observed as a city-wide day of rest. The devotional observance of the Sabbath was important in expressing thanks for God’s toil, and showed deference to the claim that God rested on the seventh day of the Creation.

He subsequently moved his capital city east to Constantinople in the year 330, i.e. modern day Istanbul in Turkey, establishing Sunday as a holiday there.

Further words for Week in Europe, Russia, Middle East and Asia

Latin septem - their word for seven
Italian settimana
French  la semaine
Spanish semana

Greek εβδομάδα evdomada ("Seven" επτά epta) ("Group" ομάδα)

In modern Russian воскресенье voskresenie "resurrection" is their name for Sunday, and неделю nedelyu is the Russian name for "week". But in old Russian nedelyu was their name for Sunday. From ne (“not”) +‎ dělo (“work”) +‎ *-ja
The word means "no work".

Today variations on nedelyu is used for Sunday in other Slavic languages for example Polish: Niedziela, Ukrainian: Недiля, Belorussian: Нядзеля, Croatian: nedjelja, Serbian and Slovenian: Nedelja, Czech: Neděle, and Bulgarian: Неделя.

and in these Slavic languages, Monday became Po-ne-delnik "First day following no work", Tuesday-"Second day", Wednesday-"Middle day", Thursday-"Fourth day", Friday-"Fifth day", and lastly Subbota "Sabbath".

For "Week" the Slavic languages mostly use a variation on Týden (e.g. in Czech), meaning "This day" (when the cycle recommences).

In Hindi, while "Sunday" became "ravivaar" (the sun's day), the word for "week" was सप्ताह  saptaah or "seven"

In Persian, the word for week was هفته  (hafte)    
Kurdish hefte
Turkish hafta
where hafta (related to Hepta - Seven)
Hafta (Devanagari: हफ़्ता) is also slang for the protection money collected periodically by gangsters and corrupt policemen. In case of policemen, however even bribes paid are often quoted as giving hafta.

Arabic  أسبوع   ('usbue is their word for a week)   (seven سبعة sabah)

Hebrew שבוע  (shevuah)

Japanese 週間 Shukan
Chinese 周 Zhōu (a circumference)

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