The Trumpet (the shofar) is blown on the first day of the seventh month in the Jews religious calendar. This is also the date on which their year number changes.
The Shofar is also blown on weekdays during the sixth month of Elul — this is part of very old Jewish tradition.
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The Jews split Exodus into the following four sections:
1. 50 days plus 1. Starting early in the morning on first day of Passover week (on 15 Nisan when the Egyptians were burying their dead). A Friday — click here. Coming out of Egypt, arriving at Sinai in the third month on the 50th day, again a Friday. See
2. 40 days plus 2 Moses upon the mountain. Starts (on Sunday) with thick cloud descending (for six days), mountain quaking, people becoming fearful of death as they hear God's voice through his angel bringing them the Ten Commandments, and thus asking Moses if he would be their mediator. So he leaves them, leaving Aaron and Hur in charge, then, during those 40 days of God talking to Moses, giving him the tablets of the Law, the people gradually get bored and start a riotous, even deadly party (that is from Hur Aaron and Miriam's point of view).
3. 40 days God's presence above the appointed meeting tent outside the camp, people worshipping at their tent doors, Moses going daily to the tent outside the camp with various ones, interceding for the people and Aaron, praying that God's presence go with them, then with Joshua actually remaining in the tent. See Exodus 33 e.g. 1st July - 9th August. These 40 days and 40 nights are specified in Deuteronomy 9:18.
4. 40 days plus 5 Moses told to reconstruct those stone tablets that he broke and to go back up Mt Sinai again. After reporting back, his face glowing, he then wore a veil. See
It is this fourth section that has the tradition of blowing the Shofar to remind every one not to do what they did the first time Moses was on the mountain. It is blown right up until the second last day of Elul. Then a final blast at the appearance of a sliver of light — the new month of Tishri.
The Jewish authorities made that day a 48 hour day (e.g. 9th - 10th September), just so there would be no missing the start of that new month.
Then, 10 days (9th September - 18th September) to Yom Kippur the Day of Atonement (Covering / Reconciliation) reminding the people that there is reconciliation and covering available - providing they have repented - and bringing them into an ongoing relationship with the Lord in preparation for Feast of Tabernacles, 5 days later. Note that after Joshua, it would not be until Nehemiah, over 1,000 years later, that this feast would be celebrated at a level that involved all the children of Israel.
So in total 178 days (6 lunar months @ 29.54 days per lunar month).
And, in Leviticus 23, seven feasts (or appointed times) are mentioned.
Four feasts were fulfilled 2,000 years ago:
Leviticus 23:10-14 "Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, When you enter the land which I am going to give to you and reap its harvest, then you shall bring in the sheaf of the first fruits of your harvest to the priest. He shall wave the sheaf before the LORD for you to be accepted; on the day after the sabbath the priest shall wave it. Now on the day when you wave the sheaf, you shall offer a male lamb one year old without defect for a burnt offering to the LORD plus a grain and drink offering. Don't eat from the harvest prior this."
Deuteronomy 16:9-11 "You shall count seven weeks for yourself; you shall begin to count seven weeks from the time you begin to put the sickle to the standing grain. Then you shall celebrate the Feast of Weeks to the LORD your God with a tribute of a freewill offering of your hand, which you shall give just as the LORD your God blesses you; and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God ..."
There are then three other feasts, the first of which may well have been fulfilled on Rosh Hashanah 2006.