World Leaders, Spouses and Capital Cities 1st Jul 2022
Locate E I P T
|Countries ▲▼||Leader and their Current Age|
|Olaf Scholz Chancellor (since 8 December 2021) 64
(wife Britta Ernst 61)|
succeeding Angela Merkel 67
Capital City: Berlin. Founding Year: 1237
Berlin, capital of Prussia, lay east of the River Elbe that bordered the Germanic Kingdom of the Franks (and Saxons) to the west. Berlin's name thus had its roots in the language of its Slavic inhabitants, probably Berl - Swamp, though with the Ber- at the beginning sounding like the German word Bär - Bear, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city.
Click here for Prussian and German history.
|France||Emmanuel Macron President 44 (wife Brigitte Macron 69)
Click here for history since 1789
Capital City: Paris. Founding Year: Circa 250BC
|Italy||Mario Draghi PM (since 13 Feb 2021) 74 (wife Serena Cappello)|
Click here for some notes on Sicily and Naples in the south-west. Traditionally close to the west (Spain).
Click here for Venice in the north-east. Traditionally close to the east (Austria).
Click here for Florence, Tuscany in the north-west, homeplace of the Medici Family, the Renaissance and the modern Italian language. Traditionally close to Rome and the Royal House of Savoy, who with the aid of France engineered Italy's reunification 1859-1870 from Piedmont-Sardinia with its capital Turin on the north west border surrounded by the Alps.
Capital City: Rome. Founding Year: Circa 753BC
|UK||Boris Johnson PM (since 24 Jul 2019) 58|
(partner Carrie Symonds 34)
succeeding Theresa May PM 65
Click here for some of England's history
Capital City: London. Year: Circa 47AD
|Canada||Justin Trudeau PM 50|
(wife Sophie Gregoire Trudeau 47)
Click here for some of Canada's history
Founding Province: Quebec. Year: 1608
Capital City: Ottawa. Founding Year: 1855 with the renaming of Bytown.
|USA||Joe Biden President 79 (wife Jill Jacobs 71)|
succeeding Donald Trump as president 76 (wife Melania Trump 52)
Click here for some of US's history
Major City: New York. Founding Year: 1624 as New Amsterdam. Renamed New York in 1664.
Capital City: Washington D.C.. Founding Year: 1790 from two pre-existing settlements founded in 1749 and 1751.
|Tonga||Tupou VI King 62|
(wife Nanasipau'u_Tuku'aho 68)
Click here for more on Tonga's history
Capital City: Nuku'alofa, formalized 1875
|Other Pacific Islands||Tahiti part of French Polynesia since 1842
Samoa ruled by Germany 1900-1914, New Zealand 1914-1962, a republic since 1962
New Caledonia a French territory since 1853
Solomon Islands a British protectorate 1886-1978, an independent constitutional monarchy since 1978
|NZ||Jacinda Ardern PM (since 26 October 2017) 41|
(partner Clarke Gayford 45)
Click here for some of New Zealand's history within the Commonwealth
Major City: Auckland. Founding Year: Circa 1350
Capital City: Wellington. Founding Year: Circa 1280
|PNG||James Marape PM (since 30 May 2019) 51 (wife Rachael Marape) pronounced Muh-rah-pay|
Click here for Papua New Guinea Timeline
Capital City: Port Moresby. A trading village renamed in 1873. Became a British Protectorate in 1888 following German colonisation in the north.
|Anthony Albanese PM 59 (partner Jodie Haydon)|
succeeding Scott Morrison (PM 2018 - 2022) 54
NSW Qld Vic Premiers
Dominic Perrottet NSW 39 (since 5 October 2021)
Annastacia Palaszczuk Qld 52
Daniel Andrews Vic 49
Some Famous Aussie Politicians
Bill Shorten previous Labour leader (2013 to 2019) 55
Josh Frydenberg previous treasurer (2018-2022) 49
Alexander Downer 70
Some Famous Aussie Writers
Frances Whiting (about) mid 50s
Click here for some editorials written by Greg in The Australian (2007-2018)
Bernard Salt 65
Click here for New South Wales Timeline
Major City: Sydney. Founding Year: 1788
Capital City: Canberra. Parliament House Opened: 1927
|Naftali Bennett PM (since 13 June 2021) 50|
(wife Gilat Bennett 45)
Click here for the latest news on Israel
Capital City: Jerusalem. Called Salem circa 2000BC (afterwards named Jebus). Renamed as City of David circa 968BC.
|Gaza Strip||Ismail Haniyeh Hamas Chief 60
Hamas, the Islamic Resistance Movement was founded in 1987 as an offshoot of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. It has been the de facto governing authority of the Gaza Strip since its takeover of that area in 2007.
Major City: Gaza City. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC
|West Bank (Palestine)||Mahmoud Abbas President 86 (wife Amina Abbas)
Click here for his predecessor Yasser Arafat and the founding of the PLO
Capital City (de facto): Ramallah. Founding Year: Circa 1000AD Crusader era
|Turkey||Recep Erdogan President 68|
(wife Emine Erdogan 67)
Click here for a recent article on the Turkish President in the Weekend Australian
Major City: Istanbul. Founding Year: Circa 660BC as Byzantium. Made Eastern Capital City in 324AD by Roman Emperor Constantine with the name Constantinople. Name changed to Istanbul in 1923.
Capital City: Ankara. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Made Capital City in 1923.
|Egypt||Abdel Fattah el-Sisi President 67 (wife Entissar Amer 65)
Capital City: Cairo. Founding Year: Circa 2000 BC as Memphis, the northern capital of Egypt. Renamed al-Qahirah ("Cairo") in Arabic in 973 AD.
Egypt was known to the Arabs as Misr, and to the Jews as Mizraim, Noah's grandson via Ham who settled there after the flood. Named as Aegyptos by the Greeks. With its conquest by Rome in 30 BC followed by the rise of Christianity in 313 AD, many remaining pagan temples were defaced and destroyed. With the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640 AD, Memphis was abandoned. The few remaining structures were dismantled so that the stone might be reused in the neighbouring villages, and later in Cairo, after that city’s founding in the 10th century.
|Lebanon||Michel Aoun pronounced Mee-shell Oww-an President 87 (wife Nadia El-Chami)|
Click here for Lebanese Civil War 1975-1990, during which time Michel Aoun served as Brigadier-General. Granted asylum in France when Syrian soldiers attacked and occupied Lebanon 1990-2005. Founded the Free Patriotic Movement in France, since 2015 led by son-in-law Gebran Bassil, and since 2007 its TV station OTV in Lebanon broadcasting in French Arabic and Armenian. Michel Aoun returned to Lebanon in 2005 after mass demonstrations followed the suicide truck bomb assassination in Beirut of PM Rafic Hariri, and Syria withdrew its army.
Capital City: Beirut. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Early Canaanite/Phoenician name meaning "The Wells". Made Capital City of Lebanon following its independence from France in 1943.
|Syria||Bashar al-Assad President 56|
(wife Asma al-Assad 46)
Click here for rulers of Syria since 1920
Capital City: Damascus. Founding Year: Circa 1400BC.
|Jordan||Abdullah II King 60|
(wife Queen Rania 51)
Following the Ottoman defeat in World War 1, it was agreed in 1921 that Abdullah bin Hussein would administer the territory known as Transjordan under the auspices of the British Mandate for Palestine. It achieved full independence as a kingdom in 1946, with its name shortened to Jordan in 1949.
Capital City: Amman. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Capital city for the Ammonite tribe.
|Salman King 86 (wife Fahda bint Falah Al Sultan)
Mohammad bin Salman Crown Prince (since 21 June 2017) 36 (wife Princess Sarah bint Mashhoor bin Abdulaziz Al Saud)
Click here for Saudi royal family background
Capital City: Riyadh pronounced Ree-yadd. Founding Year: 1744.
With regard to the failed state of Yemen directly to the south click here for its current status, Yemen’s war erupted in 2014 when the Iran-supported Houthi rebels, a tribal militia from the country’s north, stormed the capital Sanaa and captured it. Saudi Arabia viewed the rebels presence on its southern border and Iran’s support for the movement as a dangerous expansion of Tehran’s regional footprint and formed an international, US-supported coalition to fight it. Subsequently the Saudis have imposed an air land and sea blockade on Houthi areas around Sanaa, with imports subject to coalition approval, driving up prices.
Currently, there are three Presidents
|Iraq||Mustafa Al-Kadhimi PM (since 6 May 2020) 55|
Associated with the ancient city of Uruk, about 80 kms north-west of Ur.
Capital City: Baghdad. Founding Year: 762AD as a Persian village just north of ancient Babylon.
Baghdad reached its peak around 775AD as perhaps the
Baghdad was sacked by the Mongols in 1258 and never reclaimed its grandeur.
After World War 1, Faisal bin Hussein became King of Iraq under the British Mandate. Iraq became an independent kingdom in 1932, then a republic in 1958. Baghdad's population grew from 145,000 in 1900 to 7 million today.
|Ali Khamenei Supreme Leader (Ayatollah) 83 (wife Mansoureh Khojaste Khamenei)|
Ebrahim Raisi President (since 3 August 2021) 61 (wife Jamileh Alamolhoda)
Aga Khan IV Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini born in Geneva Switzerland. 85
Click here for the latest news on Iran
Capital City: Tehran. Founding Year: 1554 when a bazaar and a square town wall with four gates were built. Previously it was an unwalled region with just 1,000 residents. Circa 1778, a citadel (today's Golestan Palace) was built by
Click here for Iran's earlier capitals back to Susa (or Shushan) at the time of Daniel, Cyrus the Great and Esther.
|Vladimir Putin President 69 (currently single)
Capital City: Moscow. Founding Year: 1147
A brief history of Russia
Emperor Peter the Great (1672-1725) moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, a seaport and also a base for Peter's navy, protected by the fortress of Kronstadt. In the east, Russia settled the far eastern Kamchatka peninsula and reached "Russian America" in 1732, later selling it (as Alaska) to the USA in 1867. In 1858 the Chinese were pressured into signing the
In the west, Russia's treaty with the Turks in 1829 brought about the autonomy of Serbia in 1830, and the autonomy of Greece in 1832, though Russia's advance into Romania was thwarted (until 1940) by the Crimean War 1853-1856.
Following the Russian revolution in 1917, then the peace treaty with Germany in March 1918, Finland declared its independence after 150 years of Russian rule. For extra protection Russia moved her capital inland back to Moscow. Under Lenin (and Trotsky), from 1922 Russia formed the USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Following Lenin's death and under Stalin's iron rule, Trotsky was forced to flee to Turkey in 1929, then ultimately Mexico where he was assassinated in 1940.
Mikhail Gorbachev was the last President of the USSR with the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) forming in its place in December 1991.
The nine full member states are Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikstan and Uzbekistan. A tenth state, Turkmenistan, is an "associate state", and Afghanistan and Mongolia are "observer states".
|Volodymyr Zelensky President (since 20 May 2019) 44
(wife Olena Zelenska 44)
A brief history of Ukraine (literally border country)
|Shehbaz Sharif PM (since 11 Apr 2022) 70
(wife Tehmina Durrani 69)
Pakistan (Muslim), which in 1947 included East Pakistan (modern Bangladesh), became independent from India (Hindu) on
Click here for rulers of Pakistan since 1973
Major City: Karachi. Founding Year: 1729
Capital City: Islamabad. Founding Year: 1960
|Narendra Modi PM 71 (currently estranged from wife)|
India is the second most populated country in the world.
Click here for India's eight most widely spoken languages and scripts.
Click here for India's history after Noah's flood.
The Dominion of India came into being in the (British) Commonwealth of Nations between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950, following which it became the modern Republic of India with the adoption of its new constitution.
Capital City: New Delhi. Continuous settlement since about 6th century BC. Founding Year as a walled city, now known as Old Delhi: 1648. From 1857 the British capital was in Calcutta. The Foundation Stone for New Delhi was laid in 1911 by King George V, and the new capital was inaugurated in 1931.
Dalai Lama 86 (a monk since childhood)
|Sheikh Hasina PM 74 (currently widowed)|
Capital City: Dakha. Founding Year: 1608
A brief history of Bangladesh
War broke out in March 1971. Her father was arrested and taken to Pakistan. Bangladesh formed a provisional government, with her absent father named as President in April. They were aided by India at this time, and had Calcutta as the capital-in-exile.
|Min Aung Hlaing State Leader, age 65 (wife Kyu Kyu Hla)|
Military coup d'état 1st February 2021
Win Myint President since 2018, age 70 (wife Cho Cho)
Aung San Suu Kyi Owwn Saan Soo Chee
Click here for some further notes on Burma
Major City: Yangon (also known as Rangoon). Founding Year: Circa 1028. In 2006, the military government relocated the administrative functions to the purpose-built city of Naypyidaw.
|China||Xi Jinping President 69|
(wife Peng Liyuan 59)
China (including Tibet) is the most populated country in the world.
Click here for a history of China's dynasties (with censuses).
Capital City: Beijing. Founding Year: 1045BC
|Kim Jong-Un Supreme Leader age 39 according to South Korea, 38 according to US records|
(wife Ri Sol-ju)
In 1910 Japan annexed the whole country. Following Japan's defeat and with Soviet troops advancing, the country was divided at the 38th parallel by US troops on 10 August 1945. When Soviet troops entered Pyongyang on 25 August 1945, it became a temporary capital for the provisional government, then the de facto capital after 1948. With Korea's division, between 400,000 to 4 million refugees fled south 1945-1950. In May 1946 the Soviet-US joint commission who were overseeing Korea's reunification made it illegal to cross the 38th Parallel without a permit. Following the failure of the commission, first South then North Korea appointed their own leaders in 1948.
In 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea with the aid of Stalin. They captured Seoul in late June 1950, were forced out by the
Click here for some recent news of North Korea
Capital City: Pyongyang. Founding Year (according to Korean mythology): 1122BC
||Yoon Suk-yeol President (since 10 May 2022) 61 (wife Kim Kun-hee 49)
succeeding Moon Jae-In (President 2017 - 2022) 69
Click here for the US forces currently stationed in South Korea approximately 28,500
Capital City: Seoul in 1945 resumed its traditional role. Founding Year: 18BC
|Japan||Fumio Kishida PM (from 4 October 2021) 64
Naruhito Emperor (since 1 May 2019) 62
Click here for the US forces currently stationed in Japan, approximately 50,000
Capital City: Tokyo. First fortified (from a small fishing village): Circa 1200
|Philippines||Bongbong Marcos President-elect 64 (wife Louise Araneta)|
assuming office June 30, 2022
succeeding Rodrigo Duterte 77
Click here for the US Spanish War of 1898
Capital City: Manila. First Fortified (for trading): Circa 1200
|Nguyen Phu Trong (pronounced Wen Phoo Trong) General Secretary 78|
Click here for the Officeholders from the establishing of the Indochina Communist Party in 1930.
After the French left in 1955, South Vietnam had two Catholic military presidents with strong US support
Australia's military commitment to South Vietnam lasted from April 1965 to January 1973.
Major City: Ho Chi Minh City also known as Saigon. Founding Year as a Temple site: Circa 400AD. First settled about 1000AD.
Capital City: Hanoi. Founding Year: 1010
|Cambodia||Hun Sen PM 69|
(wife Bun Rany Hun Sen 67)
Became Prime Minister in 1985, but has had a significant role in Cambodia since 1975, the rule of the Khmer Rouge, and the fall of the US backed Khmer Republic (1970-1975). Note, between 1975-1979 under Pol Pot's regime, all monetary exchange in Cambodia was abolished. The Cambodian riel was reintroduced following Vietnam's invasion in 1979.
Capital City: Phnom Penh. Founding Year: 1372
|Thailand||Prayut Chan-o-cha PM 68|
(wife Naraporn Chan-o-cha 68)
Maha Vajiralongkorn (Rama X) King (since 2016) age 69 (current wife Suthida). Due to unpopularity the king has been mostly in self-imposed exile, reigning from an alpine resort in Bavaria in southern Germany.
Click here for some further notes on Thailand
Capital City: Bangkok. Founding Year: 1782
|Ismail Sabri Yaakob Current PM (since 21 August 2021) 62 (wife Muhaini Zainal Abidin 60)|
Mahathir Mohamad long-term politician 96 (wife Siti Hasmah Mohamad Ali 95)
A brief history of Malaya (and Singapore)
In 1942 the island of Singapore, along with Malaya fell to Japan. After Japan surrendered in 1945, a significant number of British troops were deployed to Malaya and Singapore until 1971. Australia's RAAF supported the British Govt from June 1950, with additional ground forces deployed in October 1955.
In 1957 the Federation of Malaya was formed as an independent nation, becoming Malaysia in 1963 when it merged with Singapore and British Borneo in its north (Sabah & Sarawak). From then until 1966 there was a violent confrontation with Indonesia over Borneo, only easing when General Suharto replaced Sukarno as President.
Although British troops withdrew in 1971, good relations have been maintained, with a five nation (Au, NZ, UK, Singapore and Malaysia) operational headquarters set up at Butterworth Air Base at Penang.
Click here for further notes on the early years of British Singapore and Malaysia, starting with Stanley Raffles in Penang in 1805.
Click here for a timeline snapshot (from Wikipedia) of British Malaya and British Borneo.
Capital City: Kuala Lumpur. Founding Year: Circa 1857
|Indonesia||Joko Widodo President 61
(wife Iriana 58)
Capital City: Jakarta (known to the Dutch as Batavia until Indonesian independence on December 27, 1949). Founding Year: Circa 400AD
Click here for a map of Indonesia and recent news in June 2022
A brief history of Indonesia
Click here for some notes on Marx 1818-1883 and Darwin 1809-1882
Click here for D.L.Moody 1837-1899, wife Emma Moody 1842-1903, and Ira Sankey 1840-1908
Click here for JRR Tolkien 1892-1973
Click here for CS Lewis 1898-1963 and Joy Davidman 1915-1960
Click here for Jordan Peterson 1962-
Click here for Merlin Carothers 1924-2013
Click here for Derek Prince 1915-2003
** End of List