Languages and Population History of China, India, and others, contrasted with the West

The population estimates are taken mainly from www.populstat.com (archive 2018) and www.worldometers.info and here for ancient China and here for ancient India.

Intro: World Population in 1 AD

Estimated Total is 200 million
China estimated at 60 million, India 60 million, and the Parthian Empire (modern day Iran) between 7 - 20 million
Click here for the start of the Persian (and after 247 BC the Parthian) empire under Cyrus the Great, as recorded in Daniel.
With regards to Iran, a census in 1857 showed Persia (as it was again known) to be just 4 million. Since 1857 Iran has grown to 80 million
.

In this Roman Empire estimate from 14 AD, the eastern region shows Anatolia (modern day Turkey) with 8 million, Egypt and Libya 5 million, Syria and Judaea 4 million, the Greek Peninsula 3 million, totalling 20 million.

In the West, Italy including Rome shows 7 million, Gaul (ie Britain & France) plus Germany 6 million, Iberia (Spain) 5 million, Danube Region (ie Austria-Hungary & Slavic peoples) 3 million, Maghreb (Northern Africa) 3 million, Others 1 million, totalling 25 million.

The population of the other individual nations / tribes in the rest of Asia was probably less than one million. This was also the case in much of Africa, in Australia, and also America, in their "pueblos" as the Spanish later called their villages. Where every tribe with their own languages and in most cases, their own scripts settled after the flood. People as now moved to where education, farms and townships, trade roads and ports predominated, and where business contracts could be made.

 

Regarding ancient maps 400 BC to 400 AD

End intro

In the columns below, India includes the modern countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh up to 1900.

Click here for a History of India, a most diverse country, with numerous languages and scripts.

Click here for some Background to China, by 1800 easily the largest kingdom in the world with its own language and script.

Click here for Moscow in 1283, traditionally the year of its first monastery. In 1582 Western Siberia was invaded by Russian Cossacks, building the town of Tobolsk in 1590 to be its historic capital. By 1640 they were encroaching upon Manchuria in China, though were driven back in 1685, signing a cross-border trading agreement instead in 1689. They settled the far eastern Kamchatka peninsula and reached "Russian America" in 1732, later selling it (as Alaska) to the USA in 1867. Finally the Chinese were pressured into signing the Treaty of Aigun in 1858, providing Russia with the port of Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean in 1862. These events mitigated to some extent Russia's poor outcome in the west in the Crimean War 1853-1856.

With relation to the history of the Ukraine, the country was ruled under a union of Poland and Lithuania from 1340, becoming a Cossack state in 1648, was incorporated into Russia in 1764, and except for a short period in 1918-1921 did not achieve independence until the breakup of the USSR in 1991. Click here for other Soviet Republics.

Click here for the History of Canada, Mexico and the US, and their breaking away from Europe while retaining the French language to some extent in Canada, Spanish in Mexico, and English in the US. Through the US's predominant influence in the United Nations (at least initially), in Banking, in Media and in Computers, US English today has become the defacto international language.

Large Countries in Asia

China
Han Chinese
IndiaPakistanBangladeshIndonesiaJapanRussia & USSR(1922‑1991)
Area Sq.Kms.9.5 million3.3 million880,000150,0001.9 million
(Java 128,000)
378,00017 million
USSR(22.4 million)
Main Language
after 1800
MandarinHindiPunjabi & EnglishBengaliJavanese & IndonesianJapanese
Nippon/Nihon
Russian
Russkiy
Population in millions
2000 BCUnknown6
500 BC1225
1 AD6060< 1< 1< 1
15006110086
1600511301214
17002101702615
17501801802623
1800300200162635
1850430240232768
19004002954344133
193049028023366164161
195055535040427083181
196066045050528893214
19708205556067115105243
198010006998388147118265
19901170873112110181124288
200012901057142129212127146
201013601234187153243128143
202014361372218164272127146

Each Major City (Greater Metropolitan Area)

BeijingDelhiKarachiDhakaJakartaTokyoMoscow
15003mn/an/an/an/an/a100,000
18003mn/a15,000n/a100,0001m250,000
19003m500,000200,000100,000500,0002m1m
19503m2m1m300,0001m11m4m
Mao'sDeath
1976
5m4m4m2m5m27m7m
202020m30m16m21m31m37m12 - 20m

 

Other major countries in Middle East, Asia, South America and Africa

  1. Iran 6 million in 1800, 4 million in 1850, 10 million in 1900, 20 million in 1958, 40 million in 1982, 83 million today.
  2. Turkey 5 million in 1800, 10 million in 1885, 20 million in 1949, 40 million in 1975, 84 million today.

Asia

  1. Philippines 600,000 in 1565, 2½ million in 1830, 7 million in 1898, 20 million in 1950, 50 million in 1980, 109 million today.
    Philippines was ruled by Spain from 1565 until 1898 when it became a US Territory. Commonwealth status (a transition phase towards independence) was granted in 1935. The country was conquered by Japan 1942-1945, and then gained full independence in 1946.
  2. Vietnam 7 million in 1800, 14 million in 1900, 30 million in 1954, 60 million in 1985, 97 million today.
    Vietnam was split into north and south after the Japanese left in 1945. After the French left in 1955, South Vietnam had two Catholic military presidents with strong US support
    1. Ngo Dinh Diem until 1963 when he was killed in a coup d'etat by his successor.
    2. Nguyen Van Thieu until his resignation on April 21 1975, fleeing to Taiwan five days later.
    Australia's military commitment to South Vietnam lasted from April 1965 to January 1973. By the morning of April 30 1975 the US had also fully withdrawn, and Saigon fell to northern troops at noon the same day. It was subsequently renamed as Ho Chi Minh city.
  3. Cambodia 2 million in 1800, 1 million in 1900, 2 million in 1920, 4 million in 1950, 8 million in 1990, 15 million today.
  4. Thailand 4 million in 1800, 5 million in 1850, 6 million in 1900, 10 million in 1927, 20 million in 1951, 30 million in 1964, 40 million in 1974, 50 million in 1984, 60 million in 1996, 70 million today.
  5. Myanmar (Burma) 4 million in 1800, 5 million in 1900, 10 million in 1910, 20 million in 1954, 30 million in 1975, 40 million in 1989, 50 million in 2003, 54 million today.
  6. South Korea In 1900 the country was undivided and South Korea's share of the population was about 5 million. In 1910 Japan annexed the whole country. Following Japan's defeat and with Soviet troops advancing, the country was divided at the 38th parallel by US troops on 10 August 1945. The south's population share was then about 16 million, and Seoul resumed its traditional role as the capital city. South Korea grew to 20 million in 1950, 51 million today.
  7. North Korea is about 26 million today. In 1900, its share of the population had been about 7 million, and in 1945 about 9 million. When Soviet troops entered Pyongyang on 25 August 1945, it became a temporary capital for the provisional government, then the de facto capital after 1948. At least 400,000 refugees fled south at the time, with that figure possibly as high as 4 million during the five years 1945-1950. In May 1946 the Soviet-US joint commission who were overseeing Korea's reunification made it illegal to cross the 38th Parallel without a permit. Following the failure of the commission, first South then North Korea appointed their own leaders in 1948. In 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea with the aid of Stalin. They captured Seoul in late June 1950, were forced out by the UN in September, recaptured it with the aid of Mao's army in early January 1951, before being forced out again in March. A long stalemate followed, arguments over POWs with numerous North Korean and Chinese POWs not wanting to be returned to their homeland. Finally an armistice was arranged in 1953 with ⅔ of the Chinese POWs heading to Taiwan. Both sides lost 1 to 1½ million people each during the war, the UN, well, mainly the US assisting the south. From Australia 17,000 military personnel served between June 1950 and July 1953 with 339 Australians dead and 1200 wounded.

South America

  1. Brazil To go to the "New World" and its info click here. Population 212 million today. Ruled by Portugal until 1825.
  2. Colombia 1½ million in 1800, 4 million in 1903, 12 million in 1953, 51 million today. Ruled by Spain until 1810.

Africa

  1. Nigeria 15 million in 1900, 30 million in 1948, 60 million in 1972, 120 million 1998, 203 million today.
    Independence from Great Britain came in 1960. With Great Britain's war against the slave trade, it had annexed Lagos back in 1861, and then the colony of Nigeria in 1900.
  2. Ethiopia 10 million in 1900, 20 million in 1955, 40 million in 1982, 75 million in 2005, 113 million today.
  3. Egypt 2 million in 1700, 4 million in 1800, 7½ million in 1880, 15 million in 1930, 30 million in 1965, 50 million in 1985, 101 million today.
  4. Congo (Democratic Republic) 4 million in 1900, 10 million in 1937, 20 million in 1971, 45 million in 1997, 88 million today.
    Independence from Belgium came in 1960. Belgium had earlier annexed the Congo in 1908 following pressure from Great Britain. That had followed a declaration of "private ownership" of the property of what became known as Congo Free State by King Leopold of Belgium at the West Africa Conference in Berlin in 1885. Named Zaire from 1971-1997.
  5. South Africa 5 million in 1900, 12 million in 1949, 32 million in 1984, 59 million today.
    Independence from Great Britain came in 1961. The British had been in the Cape Colony (Cape of Good Hope) since 1795. Great Britain's military invasion there had followed the French Revolution, when French troops had entered and then taken over the Dutch Republic — which at that time stretched from Holland – next door to France – via the Cape of Good Hope as far as Batavia (Java) in the East Indies. In 1910 Cape Colony combined with three other British colonies to form the Union of South Africa.
  6. Tanzania 4 million in 1900, 8 million in 1949, 20 million in 1984, 59 million today.
    Independence from Great Britain came in 1964 when Tanganyika (on the mainland) united with Zanzibar (a coastal archipelago) to form Tanzania. From 1885 to 1919 Tanganyika had been part of German East Africa.
  7. Kenya 1 million in 1900, 3 million in 1930, 8 million in 1960, 20 million in 1985, 53 million today.
    Independence from Great Britain came in 1962. It was earlier known as British East Africa, following missionary and later commercial activity (in 1888), then becoming a British protectorate in 1895.

 

England, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

EnglandFranceGermanyItalySpain
Area Sq.Kms.130,000644,000357,000300,000505,000
Main Language
after 1500
EnglishFrench
Francais
German
Deutsche
Italian
Italiano
Spanish
Espagnol
Population in millions
1 AD375
110021167
120041388
13005Edict of Expulsion royal decree in 1290 by Edward 1 expelled all Jews from England. It lasted until 1655
Bubonic Plague (Black Death in England) 1348-1349 and 1361-1362
Genesis 12:1-3
140021410
150031612118
160042015128
170052415137
1800829251710
18501635352413
19003040563218
19503942684728
20004960835741
20205765846147

Each Major City Greater Metropolitan Area

LondonParisBerlinRomeMadrid
60 AD30,0005,000n/a1mn/a
150050,000225,00010,00055,0005,000
18001m540,000170,000150,000160,000
19004m2m2m500,000500,000
19508m6m3m2m2m
20208m11m6m4m6m

 

Scotland, Wales and Ireland, historically low populations, relative to England

IrelandNorthern IrelandScotlandWales
Island of Ireland
Area Sq.Kms.70,00014,00080,00020,000
Main Language
before English
Irish Gaelic
before 1840
Scottish Gaelic
before 1600-1700
British Celtic
before 1911
Population in millions
1 ADUnknown
12001
150020.50.25
160020.80.35
1700310.4
177041.40.5
18406.531.652.61
1844-46Great Potato Famine, a time when 3 million people in Ireland were dependent on the potato crop as a food source, a water mould disease probably from the US wiped it out during three years. By 1851, 22,000 had died from starvation, a conservative figure of 400,000 had died from famine-related diseases (diphtheria, dysentery, cholera, smallpox, influenza), and by 1855 more than 1½ million adults and children had emigrated to the US. Similar to the impact of the black death in England in 1348 which wiped out more than half its population, Catholic Ireland's population in 1840 of over 6 million dropped to less than 3 million in 1920, with major resentment directed towards Protestant England for their lack of help.
18515.111.442.91.1
18704.051.363.4
19202.971.255
20003.91.6853
20204.91.95.53.1

 

New World

Australia, USA, Canada, Mexico and Brazil

AustraliaUSACanadaMexicoBrazil
Area Sq.Kms.7.7 million9.8 million10 million2 million8.5 million
Main Language
after 1800
EnglishEnglishEnglish
(& French)
SpanishPortuguese
Population in millions
1 ADUnknown
1800554
1820106
18401727
1860131388
188025041012
190047651418
1920510691427
19407132122041
19508151142854
196010179183872
197013203215295
1980152272569121
1990172492885149
20001928131102175
20102230934117197
20202533038128212

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