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The reactor building at the Bushehr nuclear power plant in southern Iran, 1200km south of Tehran. Picture: AFP
Tehran to break uranium stockpile limit in 10 days
The Australian
Tuesday, June 18, 2019

TEHRAN: Iran will break the uranium stockpile limit set by Tehran's nuclear deal with world powers in the next 10 days, the spokesman for the country's atomic agency said yesterday. Behrouz Kamalvandi also warned that Iran had uranium enriched levels up to 20 per cent, just a step away from weapons-grade levels.

The announcement indicated Iran's determination to break from the landmark 2015 accord, which has steadily unravelled since the Trump administration pulled the US out of the deal last year and reimposed tough economic sanctions on Iran, sending its economy into free fall. "Today the countdown to pass the 300kg reserve of enriched uranium has started and in 10 days' time … we will pass this limit," Mr Kamalvandi said at Iran's Arak heavy water facility.

On May 8, President Hassan Rouhani announced that Iran would stop observing restrictions on its stocks of enriched uranium and heavy water agreed under the deal. He said the move was in retaliation for the unilateral US withdrawal from the accord a year earlier, which saw Washington impose tough economic sanctions on Tehran.

Iran has threatened to go even further by July 8 unless remaining partners to the deal — Britain, China, France, Germany and Russia — help it circumvent US sanctions and especially enable it to sell its oil.

Under the agreement, Iran pledged to reduce its nuclear capacities for several years and allow international inspectors inside the country to monitor its activities in return for relief from international sanctions. The deal set a limit on the number of uranium-enriching centrifuges, and restricted its right to enrich uranium to no higher than 3.67 per cent, well below weapons-grade levels of around 90 per cent.


Revolutionary Guards Corps commander Hossein Salami, second left, at prayers in Tehran. Picture: AFP
Same Day
Self funded guards cement their power, brush off sanctions
The Australian
Benoit Faucon, Sune Engel Rasmussen
Wall Street Journal

TEHRAN: Iran's top paramilitary force is maintaining support for armed groups in the Middle East and finding new sources of funding, defying US efforts to curb its activities abroad as tensions between Washington and Tehran soar following fresh attacks in the Gulf of Oman.

Iran's government has struggled to support an economy under pressure from US sanctions, but its elite defence force has found new sources of revenue, including recently signed infrastructure contracts in Syria and Iraq as well as expanded smuggling networks, according to advisers to the Guard and the US government.

The clout of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, a group founded to protect the nation's security but which has expanded to include construction, banking and smuggling, appears to be growing in Iran as it helps to prop up the economy and keeps more powerful adversaries off balance.

"Everything you see today contributing to the Islamic Republic of Iran's defence power has been achieved under sanctions," the group's commander, Major General Hossein Salami, then a brigadier general, said in December.

The risk of a bigger conflict has come into sharp relief, as the Trump administration blames the Guard for explosions that crippled Japanese and Norwegian oil tankers on Thursday. Tehran denied involvement in these and previous attacks on tankers in the Persian Gulf last month. Iranian officials have accused the US and its allies in the region of trying to create a false pretext to drag Iran into war.

The US has rolled out an unprecedented array of sanctions, designating the Guard a terrorist organisation to prevent foreign companies from doing business with it, and making it illegal for Iran's oil buyers to import its crude.

In March, the US Treasury banned dealings with the Guard-owned Ansar Bank, saying it was the key vehicle to pay salaries of the group's Quds Force — which directs Tehran's Middle East operations — and of its Pakistani and Afghan mercenaries in Syria. In addition, Ansar Bank extended the equivalent of millions of dollars as a loan to a front company controlled by Quds Force, it said.

But corporate records show Ansar Bank's cash deposits increased by 4 per cent over the past two months as it maintained higher returns on savings accounts. The Guard generates funds from construction works through its engineering arm, Khatam al-Anbia. In Syria, Khatam has in the past year signed contracts for construction and power equipment, a Guard adviser said. Khatam has built oil and gas pipelines in Iraq between Baghdad and the oil port of Basra, as well as a water-treatment plant in the country.

It also earns funds from smuggling fuel out of Iran, and taking consumer appliances and cigarettes back into the Islamic Republic, a former Guard official and the adviser to the force said.

The group has gained influence in western Iraq with a powerful Sunni clan and a local Shia group, a person familiar with US intelligence in the region said. In the past two months, the force has assisted the purchases of abandoned houses to benefit the groups, that person said. In return, the groups have allied politically and militarily with the Guard.

The wages of Iraqi militias — some trained by the Quds Force — are funded by the Iraqi government, so they aren't affected by sanctions on the Guard. The Iraqi embrace of militias hostile to the US is a source of tension between Washington and Baghdad. On Wednesday, the US Treasury Department blacklisted an Iraqi company it said had trafficked arms valued at hundreds of millions of dollars for Quds Force.

The Guard continue to send bags of cash by plane to the group's Lebanese proxy Hezbollah in Syria, said Hanin Ghaddar, a visiting fellow at the Washington Institute who studies the group. Hezbollah hasn't commented.

Iran-allied Houthi rebels in Yemen, who also tax food, fuel and tobacco, have stepped up attacks on Saudi Arabia's energy facilities and military airports.

Iranian military leaders say its network of allies around the region are offering Tehran a new advantage. When Iran fought Iraq in the 1980s, senior Guard commander Gholam Ali Rashid told parliament last month, the Islamic Republic was on its own. "Now it has allies all over the region," he said. "The enemy will pay a heavy price" if Iran is attacked.


Iran tanker seizure: May to chair Cobra meeting on crisis
BBC News, UK
Monday, 22nd July

The prime minister will chair the government's emergency committee Cobra on Monday after a British-flagged tanker was seized by Iran in the Gulf. Theresa May is expected to receive updates from ministers and officials and discuss maintaining the security of shipping in the area.

It comes amid reports ministers are considering freezing Iranian assets. Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt is expected to update MPs later on further measures the government will take.

On Sunday, ministers denied domestic politics meant the government had taken its "eye off the ball". Defence minister Tobias Ellwood said it was "impossible" to escort each individual vessel and suggested more money should be invested in the Navy if Britain wanted to continue to play a role on the international stage.

What happened?
On Friday, 19th July, the Stena Impero was seized by the Iranian Revolutionary Guard in the key shipping route of the Strait of Hormuz after Tehran said it was "violating international maritime rules". A recording emerged of radio exchanges between HMS Montrose and Iranian armed forces vessels moments before the tanker was seized.
Iranian vessel can be heard telling the British frigate it wants to inspect the Stena Impero for security reasons. HMS Montrose was too far away to stop the seizure.

Iran's state-run IRNA news agency said the tanker was captured after it collided with a fishing boat and failed to respond to calls from the smaller craft. Mr Hunt said it was illegally seized in Omani waters and forced to sail into Bandar Abbas port in Iran.

The seizure of the Stena Impero comes two weeks after Royal Marines helped seize Iranian tanker Grace 1 off Gibraltar, because of evidence it was carrying oil to Syria in breach of EU sanctions. Mr Hunt said the Grace 1 was detained legally, but Iran said it was "piracy" and threatened to seize a British oil tanker in retaliation.

What happened to the tanker and its crew?
The Stena Impero is still being held in the port of Bandar Abbas, in southern Iran. The tanker's Swedish owner, Stena Bulk, has made a formal request to visit the 23 crew members, who are Indian, Russian, Latvian and Filipino. They have all been taken off the ship for "questioning", Iran's Press TV reported.

A relative of one Indian crew member, who did not want to be identified, told the BBC on Sunday the family was concerned and had not received any messages from him since the vessel was detained. But they said the family was being kept well informed by the Swedish company and felt reassured about diplomatic efforts to free the ship after meeting company officials on Sunday.
Although the crew and owners are not British, the Stella Impero carries the UK flag. "Historically speaking it means that the UK owes protection to the vessel," explained Richard Meade, from maritime publication Lloyds List.

What has Iran said?
Iran's foreign minister Javad Zarif tweeted on Saturday that the UK "must cease being an accessory to #EconomicTerrorism of the US". He said Iran guarantees the security of the Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz, and insisted its action was to "uphold international maritime rules". Iran's ambassador to London has warned the UK against escalating tensions, tweeting: "This is quite dangerous and unwise at a sensitive time in the region."

What's the background to tensions in the Gulf?
Relations have been deteriorating between Iran and the UK and US.
In April, the US tightened sanctions it had re-imposed on Iran after withdrawing from a 2015 nuclear deal.
The US blamed Iran for attacks on tankers since May, which Tehran denies. On Friday, the US claimed to have destroyed an Iranian drone in the Gulf.

The UK government has remained committed to the deal, which curbs Iran's nuclear activities in return for the lifting of sanctions. However, the UK's help in seizing the Iranian tanker Grace 1 infuriated Iran.
Last week, the UK said Iranian boats also attempted to impede a British oil tanker in the region before being warned off by HMS Montrose. Iran denied any attempted seizure.

International reaction
The White House said Friday's incident was the second time in more than a week the UK had been "the target of escalatory violence" by Iran. US Central Command said it was developing a multinational maritime effort in response to the situation. The Pentagon said US troops are being deployed to Saudi Arabia to defend American interests in the region.

On Sunday, the Foreign Office confirmed Mr Hunt spoke with his French and German counterparts, who have both condemned Iran's actions. France's Jean-Yves Le Drian and Germany's Heiko Maas agreed that safe passage through the Strait of Hormuz is a top priority for European nations, while avoiding any possible escalation.

Latest News Tuesday 23rd July

The crew of a British-flagged tanker that was seized in the Gulf are "safe", the vessel's owner has said after speaking to them for the first time. The British-flagged Stena Impero and its 23 crew were taken by Iran's Revolutionary Guard on Friday.

The owner, Stena Bulk, made contact on Tuesday with the ship's master who said they were safe and there was good co-operation with the Iranians on board.


The Adrian Darya, formerly known as Grace 1 and seen earlier Sunday, is at the center of a dispute between Tehran and the West on enforcement of Syrian sanctions. It left Gibraltar despite a US effort to block its release.
Photo: Johnny Bugeja/AFP/Getty Images
Iranian Tanker Leaves Gibraltar Over US Objections
US Wall Street Journal
Benoit Faucon
Monday, 19th August, 2019

LONDON: The Iranian tanker impounded by Gibraltar sailed out of the British overseas territory on Sunday over the objections of the US, a Gibraltar official said, raising hopes that Iran would reciprocate and release a British-flagged tanker in the Persian Gulf. The ship, renamed the Adrian Darya 1 and given an Iranian flag, left Gibraltar's waters around 11 pm local time after the territory's Justice Ministry rejected a US Justice Department warrant seeking the seizure of the Iranian vessel and its 2.1 million barrels of crude oil. Gibraltar officials said the territory follows the European Union's laws, not the US's.

The US warrant and difficulty finding a crew had delayed the ship's departure. Gibraltar had already decided to release the ship last week after receiving assurances from Iran that the ship's oil wouldn't go to Syria. The EU bans oil exports to Syria as part of a sanctions regime against President Bashar al-Assad, but it doesn't prohibit Iranian oil sales in general, as the US does.

The Adrian Darya's release is expected to pave the way for Iran to free the British-flagged tanker, Stena Impero, which it captured in the Persian Gulf last month on accusations that it broke international maritime rules. The UK and Iran didn't say if the release of the Iranian tanker was linked to the British-flagged vessel's freedom. But Iranian officials have previously indicated such a move would help end the Stena Impero's detention.

The two tankers have become important pieces in the escalating tensions between Iran and the US, and by extension allies and partners like the UK and Saudi Arabia. The conflict stems from the American withdrawal from a nuclear deal with Tehran and reimposing sanctions in a bid to force Tehran to pull back militarily and politically in the Middle East.

Iran has responded this year by reducing its commitments to the nuclear deal still in effect with European countries, Russia and China and downing an American drone over the Strait of Hormuz. The US also says Iran has harassed and attacked commercial vessels in the area, which Iran denies.

Gibraltar's release of the Iranian tanker is a setback for the US's attempts to enforce American sanctions in international maritime waters. Since deciding on a total ban on Iran's crude exports, the Trump administration has put pressure on both Iran's oil buyers and those providing services to its tankers. American officials say they have succeeded in getting more than 80 Iranian tankers stripped of maritime flags provided by other countries, including the Adrian Darya, previously named the Grace 1, which lost its Panama flag under US pressure, according to a person familiar with the vessel.

But Gibraltar's decision shows US sanctions aren't universally accepted. China imported 200,000 barrels a day of Iranian crude in June, according to its customs data. In the case of the Adrian Darya, the US said the tanker was assisting the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, which it has designated a terrorist organization, by transporting oil from Iran to Syria. As a result, the US would bar its crew members from entry into the US.

The Adrian Darya turned off its satellite-tracking systems after leaving Gibraltar, according to FleetMon, the ship-tracking service. The Iranian tanker is likely to sail to Moroccan waters as its owners hold talks with potential Portuguese and Spanish buyers, a person familiar with its plans said. Iranian-controlled TNC Group, which owns the vessel, couldn't be reached for comment. Washington bans all purchases of Iran's crude and has warned any buyer of its oil could be cut off from the US financial system.

A top Iranian commander said the Islamic Republic's navy would be ready to protect the Adrian Darya if needed, though it had no plans to do so at this stage. "If top authorities ask the navy, we are ready to escort out tanker Adrian," Rear Adm Hossein Khanzadi was quoted as saying by Mehr news agency.

After a meandering journey eastwards, she arrived off the coast of Lebanon on September 1. She then turned north towards Syria and her AIS signal disappeared. Satellite imagery consultancy TankerTrackers confirmed that she remained in place off the port of Tartus in laden condition throughout the month of September.

Satellite imagery showed the blacklisted Iranian VLCC Adrian Darya 1 finally offloading her cargo at the port of Baniyas, Syria, despite US and EU sanctions.

According to the US State Department, a satellite image dated October 2 shows the Adrian Darya 1 rafted up with the Iranian LR1 Jasmine for an apparent ship-to-ship transfer. An image from October 4 shows the Jasmine at the offshore terminal for the Baniyas refinery.

"Oil from the Adrian Darya 1 has been offloaded in Syria, proving that Iran lied to the UK and Gibraltar," said US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo in a Twitter post. "This terrorist oil will fund Assad's war and Iran's sectarian violence. EU members should condemn this action, uphold the rule of law, and hold Iran accountable."


A US soldier observes from the top of a fighting vehicle at a US military base in northeastern Syria.
Picture: AP
US 'to double Mid-East troop footprint'
The Australian
Gordon Lubold and Nancy A Yousef, Wall Street Journal
Friday, 6th December, 2019

Washington: The US is weighing sending up to 14,000 more troops to the Middle East in the face of a perceived threat from Iran. The expansion of its military footprint would include dozens more ships and other military hardware, US officials say.

The deployment could double the number of American military personnel who have been sent to the region since the start of a troop build-up in May. Donald Trump is expected to make a decision on the new deployments as soon as this month, the officials said. The US President, facing an election next year, has long sought to exit foreign entanglements and avoid new conflicts, but on Iran — and partly at the behest of Israel — he is convinced of the need to counter the threat his aides say Tehran poses.

There is growing fear among US military and other administration officials that an attack on US interests and forces could leave the US with few options in the region. By sending additional military resources to the region, the administration would be presenting a more credible deterrent to Tehran, blamed for a series of attacks, including one in September against oil facilities in Saudi Arabia. Iran has denied involvement.

On Wednesday, France, Germany and Britain announced they believed Iran had developed nuclear-capable ballistic missiles, which goes against a UN Security Council call on Tehran not to undertake any activity related to such missiles. Ambassadors from the three countries urged UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres to inform the council in his next report that Iran's ballistic missile activity was "inconsistent" with the call in a council resolution endorsing the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran.

Mr Trump withdrew from the nuclear agreement in May last year, but it is still supported by the five other parties — France, Britain, Russia, Germany and China.

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said on Wednesday the country was willing to return to the negotiating table over its nuclear program if the US dropped sanctions, which have hampered the country's economy and may have contributed to recent domestic turmoil sparked by fuel price hikes.

Feeding US fears was a "significant cache" of suspected Iranian guided missile parts seized by a US Navy warship last week headed to rebels in Yemen. It was the first time such sophisticated components have been taken en route to the war there. Officials said the incident illustrated the continuing illegal smuggling of weapons to Houthi rebels and came as US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met, with Iran as the main topic.

The proposed new US deployment would also be designed as a deterrent against possible Iranian retaliation for mounting sanctions under the administration's economic-pressure campaign. Some officials worry, however, that adding more American military resources to the mix could provoke another attack, or put the region on track for a dangerous and unpredictable conflict.

The additional forces would join about 14,000 US service members sent to the region since May, when American intelligence identified a threat from Iran, and US Central Command commander Marine General Frank McKenzie requested extra ships, missile-defence platforms and troops.


The Pentagon confirmed that US forces had killed Gen Soleimani
Qasem Soleimani: Strike was to 'stop war', says Trump
BBC News
Saturday, 4th January, 2020

President Donald Trump has said the US killed Iran's top military commander Qasem Soleimani "to stop a war, not to start one".

He said Soleimani's "reign of terror is over" after the strike at Baghdad airport in Iraq on Friday. Soleimani spearheaded Iran's Middle East operations as head of the Quds ("Holy") Force for 21 years. Iran has vowed "severe revenge" on those responsible for his death.

The killing marks a major escalation in tensions between the two countries. US officials have said 3,000 additional troops will be sent to the Middle East as a precaution.

Iraqi state television says there has been another air strike in the country, 24 hours after the killing of Soleimani. However, there has been no comment on this from Washington. An Iraqi army source told Reuters news agency that six people have been killed in the fresh strike, which hit a convey of Iraqi militia in the early hours of Saturday morning (local time).

What did President Trump say?
Speaking at a news conference at his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida, Mr Trump said of Friday's attack: "The United States military executed a flawless precision strike that killed the number one terrorist anywhere in the world Qassem Soleimani." He said: "Soleimani was plotting imminent and sinister attacks on American diplomats and military personnel but we caught him in the act and terminated him."

How has Iran and Iraq reacted?
In a statement following Soleimani's death, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said: "His departure to God does not end his path or his mission, but a forceful revenge awaits the criminals who have his blood and the blood of the other martyrs last night on their hands."

Iraq's parliament will hold an emergency meeting on Sunday. Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi labelled the missile strike as a "brazen violation of Iraq's sovereignty and a blatant attack on the nation's dignity".

Iraqi militia leader Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis was also killed in the strike. He commanded the Iranian-backed Kataib Hezbollah group, blamed by Washington for a rocket attack that killed a US civilian contractor in northern Iraq last Friday (a week ago).

The US State Department has warned Americans in Iraq to leave "immediately".

Who was Qasem Soleimani?
The 62-year-old was widely seen as the second most powerful figure in Iran, behind Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. The Quds Force, an elite unit of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), reported directly to the ayatollah and Soleimani was hailed as a heroic national figure.

Under his 21-year leadership of the Quds Force, Iran bolstered Hezbollah and other pro-Iranian militant groups in Lebanon, expanded its military presence in Iraq and Syria, and orchestrated Syria's offensive against rebel groups in that country's long civil war.

How did the strike take place and who was killed?
Soleimani and officials from Iran-backed militias were leaving Baghdad airport in two cars at 1:12am Friday morning (local time) when they were hit by several missiles from a US drone strike near a cargo area. The commander had reportedly flown in from Lebanon or Syria. Iran's Revolutionary Guard said 10 people were killed, including five of its members and Iraqi militia leader Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis.

Some Background to the Attack
The Australian
Extract from The Times
January 6th 2020

On Sunday 29th December, US airstrikes hit Kataeb Hezbollah posts in eastern Syria and western Iraq, killing 25 fighters and wounding dozens. Washington said the strikes were in retaliation for an attack on a base in northern Iraq that killed an American contractor and wounded four others.

The following Tuesday and Wednesday, Mr Trump was watching television and saw pro-Iranian militias lead crowds of supporters, from the mass funeral of the Kataeb Hezbollah fighters who had been killed by that presidential order, into the centre of Baghdad, storming unchallenged into the supposedly secure international green zone.

They broke into the US embassy, setting fire to the reception. This happened on both days, before they withdrew. For some TV commentators, and Mr Trump, this was all too reminiscent of the capture of the US embassy and its diplomats in Tehran in 1979 and the terrorist attack on the US consulate in Benghazi, Libya, in September 2012 when the US ambassador Christopher Stevens was killed.

Mr Trump and his Republican backers had repeatedly castigated then president Barack Obama over that. He could not allow himself to appear weak now. No matter that the "protesters" in Baghdad restrained themselves and withdrew on both days: in the meantime, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the Iranian supreme leader, appeared to be goading him.

"Iran will be held fully responsible for lives lost, or damage incurred, at any of our facilities," Mr Trump tweeted. The response on the ayatollah's Twitter account read: "That guy has tweeted that we see Iran responsible for the events in Baghdad and we will respond to Iran … You can't do anything."

The speed of the events that followed happened largely by chance.

Soleimani used to operate in the shadows but has made himself increasingly a public figure. During the battle against Islamic State in Iraq, he often appeared in photographs with leading Iraqi militia leaders. He was said to be confident enough to use scheduled flights on a Syrian airline, Cham Wings, to travel to Damascus. In what now seems an extraordinary lapse in personal security, he did the same again. On New Year's Day, he was driven, apparently from Damascus, to Beirut for a meeting with Hassan Nasrallah, the head of Hezbollah. Nasrallah said he warned his friend that he could be assassinated. "He laughed and told me, I hope so, pray for me," Nasrallah recounted in a speech on Sunday.

Later, he travelled back by road to Damascus, a two-hour trip, and then on Thursday evening caught the late-night Cham Wings flight that took off for Baghdad at 10.28pm local time.

All of this was being watched by the CIA and the National Security Agency, who realised the Pentagon had a golden opportunity but only if it acted fast, with little time for consultations.

It remains unclear whether the Pentagon realised that it would also be killing Abu Mahdi al-Mohandes, the Kataeb Hezbollah leader and deputy head of the Iraqi government body that oversees the militias, or whether it cared.

Two MQ-9 Reaper drones were launched from the US al-Udeid military base in Qatar for Baghdad 1100km away. When Soleimani landed at 12.34am local time, they were waiting.


Extract - CCTV captures moment plane was downed as Iran makes 'first arrests'
The Australian
Rob Gillies and Babak Dehghanpishneh, AP
January 15th 2020

CCTV footage has emerged of the moment Ukrainian airliner was shot down in Tehran last week, as Iran announces its first arrests after a third night of protests over the outrage. The video shows two separate missile launches that targeted and ultimately brought down the commercial flight. This came after Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said the victims of the missile attack that killed 176 people, including 57 Canadians, would be alive right now if tensions had not escalated in the region.

He was speaking as protesters were taking to the streets of Iran to denounce the country's clerical rulers and riot police deployed to face them in a third day of demonstrations after authorities acknowledged shooting down Ukraine International Airlines Flight PS752 by mistake.

The crash came at 6:14am (local time) on Wednesday 8th January, about four hours after Iran launched retaliatory missile strikes on US positions in Iraq for the killing of Major General Qasem Soleimani on 3rd January. There were no survivors.

For days, Tehran denied Western claims based on US intelligence that the Boeing 737-800 had been downed by a missile. It came clean on Saturday when Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps aerospace commander Brigadier General Amirali Hajizadeh acknowledged that a missile operator had mistaken the plane for a cruise missile and opened fire independently.

At a televised news conference, the judiciary announced the first arrests had been made over the blunder, without specifying how many. "Extensive investigations have been carried out and some people have been arrested," said spokesman Gholamhossein Esmaili.

The announcement came shortly after President Hassan Rouhani said everyone responsible for the disaster must be punished. "For our people it is very important in this incident that anyone who was at fault or negligent at any level" face justice, Mr Rouhani said. "Anyone who should be punished must be punished. The judiciary must form a special court with a high-ranking judge and dozens of experts … The whole world will be watching. It cannot be that only the person who pressed the button is at fault. There are others, and I want this to be explained to the people explicitly."

Mr Trudeau has been careful to avoid blaming Donald Trump for the deaths of the passengers after the US President ordered the killing of Iranian general Qassem Soleimani in a US airstrike in Baghdad. "If there was no escalation recently in the region, those Canadians would be right now home with their families. This is something that happens when you have conflict and war. Innocents bear the brunt of it," he told Global News Television.

Some Canadians, including a leading business figure, blame Mr Trump in part for the deaths. Mr Trudeau has spoken to the US President. "I've talked about the tremendous grief and loss that Canadians are feeling and the need for clear answers on how this happened and how we're going to make sure it never happens again," he said. Mr Trudeau added that he would have "obviously" liked a warning before Trump ordered the killing of the Iranian general. Canada has troops in Iraq as part of a NATO training mission.

Canada's Transportation Safety Board, meanwhile, said Iranian officials had invited it to participate in analysis of the voice and flight data recorders from the Ukrainian jetliner. Natacha Van Themsche, the director of investigations, said Canadian experts also had been invited to inspect the wreckage and the crash site – an unusual step since the plane was not produced in Canada and the crash did not occur in Canada.


The damaged car of Iranian nuclear scientist Mohsen Fakhrizadeh after it was attacked near the capital Tehran.
Picture: Iran TV
Iran vows revenge after top nuclear scientist Mohsen Fakhrizadeh killed
The Australian
Saturday, 28th November, 2020

Iran said one of its most prominent nuclear scientists was assassinated on Friday afternoon, succumbing to his wounds late afternoon (their time), in an attack outside Tehran, blaming arch foe Israel and warning of “severe revenge”. The assassination threatens to escalate tensions between Iran and the US and its close ally Israel, with some warning of the risk of a major conflict in the Middle East.

Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, 59, was “seriously wounded” when assailants targeted his car before being engaged in a gunfight with his bodyguards, the defence ministry said. It added that Fakhrizadeh, who headed the ministry’s research and innovation organisation, was later “martyred” after medics failed to revive him.

The United States slapped sanctions on Fakhrizadeh in 2008 for “activities and transactions that contributed to the development of Iran’s nuclear programme”, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu once described him as the father of Iran’s nuclear weapons programme.

Fakhrizadeh was targeted while travelling near Absard city in Tehran province’s eastern Damavand county. A state television reporter said a pickup truck carrying explosives concealed under a pile of wood exploded in front of his car, before it was sprayed with bullets from an SUV. Images from the scene showed a black sedan on the side of the road, its windshield pockmarked with bullet holes. A pool of blood was seen on the asphalt.

Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif said there were “serious indications of an Israeli role” in the assassination. “Terrorists murdered an eminent Iranian scientist today,” he tweeted. “This cowardice — with serious indications of Israeli role — shows desperate warmongering of perpetrators.” Zarif called on international community to “condemn this act of state terror”. The New York Times said an American official and two other intelligence officials confirmed Israel was behind the attack, without giving further details. A spokesman for Netanyahu questioned by AFP in Jerusalem declined to comment on the attack.

Iran’s Defence Minister Amir Hatami said Fakhrizadeh had a “significant role in defence innovations” and had been repeatedly “threatened with assassination and (was) followed.” Speaking on television, Hatami said he “managed nuclear defence and did extensive work”, without elaborating. He linked Fakhrizadeh’s assassination to the killing of Iran’s top general Qasem Soleimani as “completely related”. Soleimani, who headed the Revolutionary Guards’ Quds Force, was killed in an American air strike near Baghdad airport in January. Days later, Iran launched a volley of missiles at Iraqi bases housing US and other coalition troops, but Trump refrained from any further military response.

Iran’s armed forces chief of staff Major General Mohammad Bagheri called Fakhrizdeh’s death “a bitter and heavy blow to the country’s defence system” and warned of “severe revenge”. Hossein Dehghan, military adviser to Iran’s supreme leader and a former senior officer in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, accused Israel of trying to provoke a war through the assassination. “In the last days of the political life of their gambling ally (Trump), the Zionists are trying to intensify pressure on Iran to create a full-blown war,” he tweeted. “We will strike the killers like lightning.”

Many Iranian newspapers covered Fakhrizadeh’s assassination on the front pages of their Saturday editions. The conservative Resalat called him the “pride of (Iran’s) nuclear industry” and said his killing showed “the West cannot be trusted”. Hamas, the Palestinian Islamist group that controls Gaza, condemned the assassination. “This assassination comes against the background of persistant American and Zionist threats against the Islamic Republic of Iran,” it said.

Ellie Geranmayeh of the European Council on International Relations said on Twitter that the “objective behind the killing wasn’t to hinder (Iran’s) nuclear programme but to undermine diplomacy.” She noted that recent high-level visits by US officials to Israel and Saudi Arabia “raised flags something being cooked up” to “provoke Iran and complicate Biden’s diplomatic push.” The killing of Fakhrizadeh is the latest in a series of assassinations of nuclear scientists in Iran in recent years that the Islamic republic has blamed on Israel.

The New York Times reported earlier in November that Al-Qaeda’s second-in-command was secretly shot and killed in Tehran by two Israeli operatives on a motorcycle at Washington’s behest. Iran said the report was based on “made-up information” and reaffirmed its denial of the presence of any of the group’s members in the Islamic republic.

Fakhrizadeh’s assassination comes less than two months before Joe Biden is to take office as US president. Biden has promised a return to diplomacy with Iran after four hawkish years under Trump, who withdrew from the Iran nuclear deal in 2018 and began reimposing crippling sanctions. At the time, Trump said the deal did not offer sufficient guarantees to stop Tehran from acquiring an atomic bomb. Iran has always denied it wants such a weapon. Trump on Friday retweeted reports on Fakhrizadeh’s assassination, without commenting on it himself.

A strong critic of President Donald Trump, former CIA director John Brennan warned the assassination risked sparking a wider conflagration in the Middle East. “This was a criminal act and highly reckless. It risks lethal retaliation and a new round of regional conflict,” Brennan tweeted. “I do not know whether a foreign government authorized or carried out the murder of Fakhrizadeh,” he said. “Such an act of state-sponsored terrorism would be a flagrant violation of international law & encourage more governments to carry out lethal attacks against foreign officials.”

Brennan noted that Fakhrizadeh was not a designated terrorist nor a member of Al Qaeda or the Islamic State group, designated terror groups which would be legal targets. “Iranian leaders would be wise to wait for the return of responsible American leadership on the global stage and to resist the urge to respond against perceived culprits.”

Brennan was director of the CIA from 2013 to 2017, under the administration of president Barack Obama and then-vice president Biden. Brennan did not take part in Biden’s election campaign and has not appeared to be involved in his preparations for taking office on January 20. But early this week Biden named Brennan’s former deputy director at the CIA, Avril Haines, as his director of national intelligence.


Smoke billows from the refinery fire in Tehran
Iran investigates fire that sank one of its largest ships
The Australian
Sune Engel Rasmussen, Wall Street Journal
Friday, 4th June 2021

Iran is investigating a fire that sank one of its largest navy ships in the Gulf of Oman, according to Iranian state media, the latest blow to the country’s vital infrastructure and military assets. Hours after the ship fire on Wednesday, a large fire broke out at an oil refinery near the Iranian capital. See photo. Leakage in a liquefied petroleum gas pipeline at the facility caused an explosion and fire, the head of Tehran’s crisis management team told state television. He said no one had been harmed. It wasn’t immediately clear what caused the fire. Hot summer weather has caused similar fires in the past.

The ship, named the Kharg after an Iranian island, had been deployed to international waters to participate in a training exercise when it caught fire near the port of Jask, the Tasnim news agency said. The fire started in the engine room and caused parts of the ship to melt and fall into the sea, state news agency IRNA said. Rescue workers tried for 20 hours to extinguish the fire but couldn’t prevent it from spreading, Tasnim said, citing Iran’s navy. Nearly 400 crew members were evacuated safely from the ship, 33 of them with minor injuries, according to the Hormuzgan governor’s office, which oversees the area where the ship sank.

The commander of the navy and several senior officers were in the region to investigate the incident, according to IRNA. Other Iranian media outlets broadcast footage from the Gulf of Oman of what they said was the ship burning in the distance. The Kharg was an oil replenishment tanker, built to enable smaller vessels to embark on extended deployments by supplying them with fuel and dry stores at sea, and capable of carrying large helicopters. Its logistics capacity also made it able to carry heavy cargo, such as military equipment, which could make it suspicious in the eyes of its enemies, US Navy commander Joshua Himes wrote for the Centre for Strategic and International Studies in 2011.

The ship’s sinking follows a string of recent explosions and fires at nuclear and military sites, and attacks on Iranian naval vessels. While Tehran hasn’t accused anyone of attacking the Kharg, the incident comes amid tensions between Iran and its regional foes.

Israel is opposed to ongoing talks to revive the international nuclear deal with Iran, and is pushing the US to do more to contain what it calls Iran’s malign behaviour in the Middle East, including support for militias that threaten Israel.

In recent years, a new front in the confrontation between Iran and Israel has opened up at sea. Since late 2019, Israel has targeted at least a dozen Iranian vessels bound for Syria, US and regional officials say, mostly carrying oil that Israel says funds Iranianbacked extremist groups. Israel’s military has declined to comment on the alleged attacks on Iranian ships. In July 2020, a blaze at Iran’s southern port of Bandar Abbas damaged seven ships and raised suspicion of co-ordinated sabotage.

Iran has also suffered devastating accidents. In May last year, an Iranian warship struck one of the country’s naval vessels during an exercise near a strategic Persian Gulf waterway, killing at least 19 sailors.

Tehran has also accused Israel of being behind several recent attacks on its nuclear program, including two fires and explosions on its Natanz nuclear facility, in April and last July, as well as the killing of its top nuclear scientist in November. Israel usually doesn’t comment on such allegations.

The vessel that sank on Wednesday, a modified OL-class vessel originally built for the shah in the late 1970s by Britain, was part of an ageing Iranian fleet that has deteriorated over the years under US and international sanctions. It was delivered to Iran in 1984 and had been in commission since.


Israel readies to attack Iran nuke site
The Australian
David Rose, The Times, AFP
Tuesday, 22nd June 2021

BEIRUT: Israel is dusting off plans to attack Iran’s nuclear facilities in response to a hardline judge known as the “Butcher of Tehran” being elected as the next president of its bitterest enemy.

New Prime Minister Naftali Bennett used his first cabinet meeting in Jerusalem to declare that the world must “wake up” to the election of the “mass murderer” Ebrahim Raisi, and vowed never to allow “a regime of brutal hangmen” in Tehran to obtain a nuclear weapon. His warning came as diplomats from other world powers on Sunday resumed – and quickly adjourned – talks in Vienna on restoring a 2015 non-proliferation deal that Iran previously agreed to limit its nuclear activities in return for the easing of crippling international sanctions.

Mr Bennett said that Mr Raisi’s election was “the last chance for the world powers to wake up before returning to the nuclear agreement and to understand who they’re doing business with. These guys are murderers, mass murderers: a regime of brutal hangmen must never be allowed to have weapons of mass destruction that will enable it to not kill thousands, but millions,” he said.

As Israel’s foreign ministry described Mr Raisi as “an extremist responsible for the deaths of thousands of Iranians”, an unnamed government source told a television broadcaster: “There will be no choice (now) but to go back and prepare attack plans for Iran’s nuclear program. This will require budgets and the reallocation of resources.”

While Iran continues to insist that its research program is peaceful, Israel has long accused Tehran of secretly trying to develop nuclear warheads, which it regards as an existential threat.

This month departing Israeli intelligence chief Yossi Cohen signalled that the Mossad spy agency was behind a string of recent sabotage attacks targeting Iran’s nuclear sites and personnel. The most recent attack, an explosion at an underground facility in Natanz in April, happened as diplomats first met in Vienna to salvage the 2015 deal that Israel has vehemently opposed.

Former US president Donald Trump abandoned the so-called Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action three years ago in favour of a policy of “maximum pressure” sanctions against key industries and regime figures. Tehran responded by stepping up production of enriched uranium, the raw materials for a weapon.

Among those targeted by Washington’s sanctions was Mr Raisi, the head of Iran’s judiciary, who was confirmed as the next president on Saturday after receiving 62 per cent of the vote. Viewed as the favoured candidate of – and even a potential successor to – Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Mr Raisi was widely expected to win, after a rigged election in which hundreds of potential rivals were blocked from standing by the regime’s Guardian Council.

While Mr Khamenei’s hardline supporters hailed the result as a triumph against “foreign intervention” in Iran, the official turnout at polling stations was just 48.8 per cent, a record low in the Islamic republic. About 3.7 million spoiled ballots were cast, more than the votes received by all candidates except for the winner. In a short statement published by state media, Mr Raisi promised to “form a hard-working, revolutionary and anti-corruption government” when he takes over in August from President Hassan Rouhani, who was not allowed to stand after eight years in power.

Iran’s moderate Jomhouri-e Eslami daily newspaper highlighted that conservatives had now cemented their hold on power, from parliament and the Guardian Council to the court system and armed forces. With a touch of irony, it wrote that “we, the people of Iran, owed the conservative faction a homogeneous government” and “the people have delivered”.

As a former member of clerical “death committees”, Mr Raisi has been accused of ordering the mass execution of thousands of prisoners in 1988. He has said that he supports the renewal of the 2015 nuclear deal “as long as it serves Iran’s interests.”

Since April, diplomats from Britain, France, Germany, China, Russia and the EU have been mediating in indirect talks between Washington and Tehran to rescue the deal. It would require the US lifting sanctions and Iran agreeing to strict limits on uranium enrichment, to be monitored by UN experts.

Iran’s sole nuclear power plant in the port city of Bushhehr has undergone an emergency shutdown for the first time since 2011, state TV reported on Sunday. without giving details.

Aftermath reported New York Post December 2021

Mossad’s attention had turned to the production of the centrifuges themselves, to disrupt the regime’s attempt to restore the Natanz facility. The crosshairs moved to Karaj, 30 miles northwest of Tehran, where the Iran Centrifuge Technology Company (TESA) is located. In recent months, a team of Israeli spies and their Iranian agents had jointly smuggled an armed quadcopter — weighing the same as a motorcycle, a source confirmed — into the country, piece by piece. Now it was time to deploy it.

On June 23, the team assembled the kit and took it to a location 10 miles from the TESA factory. The operatives launched it, piloted it to the factory and released the payload, causing a large explosion. Then the drone returned to the launch site, where it was spirited away to be used again.


Colonel Sayyad Khodai Picture: IRNA via AFP
Iran accuses ‘US allies’ of gunning down Guards officer
The Australian
Tuesday, 24th May, 2022

An Iranian Revolutionary Guards colonel was shot dead outside his Tehran home on Sunday, the Guards said, blaming his “assassination” on assailants linked to the US and its allies. The killing of Colonel Sayyad Khodai is the most high-profile murder inside Iran since the November 2020 killing of top nuclear scientist Mohsen Fakhrizadeh. Iran had accused Israel of ­masterminding the attack on Fakhrizadeh’s convoy near Tehran, and later identified him as a deputy defence minister. It was reported Israel had used a remote-controlled machinegun to kill ­Fakhrizadeh.

On Sunday, Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps said “elements linked to global arrogance” – a reference to the US and its allies, including Israel – were responsible for the “terrorist act” that claimed Colonel Khodai’s life. In a statement on their website, the Guards said Colonel Khodai “was assassinated in an armed attack carried out by two motorcyclists on Mojahedin-e Eslam street in Tehran”, outside his home.

The Guards – the ideological arm of Iran’s military – described Colonel Khodai as a “defender of the sanctuary”, a term used for anyone who works on behalf of the Islamic republic in Syria or Iraq. Iran wields considerable influence in Iraq, home to key Shia holy shrines, where it says it has “military advisers” tasked with training foreign “volunteers”.

Major general Qasem Soleimani, who headed the Quds Force, the foreign operations arm of the Guards, was killed in a US drone attack in the Iraqi capital Baghdad in January 2020.

The Islamic republic is also a major ally of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and has backed his government in that country’s 11-year civil war. Tehran says it has deployed forces in Syria at the invitation of Damascus, but only as advisers. State television said Colonel Khodai was “well-known” in Syria, without elaborating.

The official news agency IRNA said Colonel Khodai was killed by five bullets as he returned home about 4pm. The agency published pictures showing a man slumped over in the driver’s seat of a white car, with blood around the collar of his blue shirt and on his right upper arm. He is strapped in with his seat belt and the front window on the passenger side has been shot out.

Foreign ministry spokesman Saeed Khatibzadeh deplored the killing of Colonel Khodai. “This inhuman crime was perpetrated by terrorist elements linked to global arrogance,” he said, denouncing “the silence of countries that pretend to fight against terrorism”. The Guards said they had launched an investigation to identify the “aggressor or the aggressors”.

The Fars news agency reported the state prosecutor visited the scene of the killing and ordered the “quick identification and arrest of the authors of this criminal act”. Hours earlier on Sunday, the Guards said they had arrested a gang of “thugs linked to the intelligence agency of the Zionist ­regime (Israel)”. A statement said the suspects were involved in a series of crimes, including “robberies, kidnappings and vandalism”.

Colonel Khodai’s killing came as talks between Iran and world powers to restore a 2015 nuclear deal have stalled since March. One of the main sticking points is Tehran’s demand to remove the Guards from a US terrorism list – a request rejected by Washington.

The 2015 agreement gave Iran sanctions relief in exchange for curbs on its nuclear program to prevent Tehran from developing an atomic bomb – something it has always denied wanting to do. It fell apart after then US president Donald Trump pulled out of the deal unilaterally in 2018 and reimposed biting economic sanctions on Tehran, prompting Iran to begin rolling back on its own commitments.

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