Opening F-111 dump and burn at Riverfire 2006, an annual fireworks/RAAF spectacular at South Bank in Brisbane, Saturday September 2nd 2006


The most vulnerable countries in 2010 are shown in PIMCO’s chart “The Ring of Fire.” These red zone countries are ones with the potential for public debt to exceed 90% of GDP within a few years’ time. The yellow and green areas are considered to be the most conservative and potentially most solvent, with the potential for higher growth.

On February 11, 2010 12:14 PM, "Stephen Williamson" wrote:

Hi all

Really interesting graph in today's Australian, comparing numerous advanced economies in the western world, in terms of their public debt and budget deficit (as a percentage of GDP).

So, going left to right, it shows Gross Government Debt as a percentage of Gross Domestic Production (for the year). We've jumped from 10% of GDP in 2007 to about 17% (or more) now, and though it's still going up, it's still the lowest of all the countries on that list. That, doubtless, is with major thanks to Costello and Howard.

Going top to bottom, it shows current government surplus / deficit for the year, once again as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product. And, once again, Australia's 4% deficit, though it's in deficit, still looks fairly healthy, compared to, say, poor old Greece .

In fact, we look like we're in a better state than just about any other country on the list.

Click here to read the full article.

Click here for an updated "Sweeping Plains" article by KPMG partner, Bernard Salt in "The Australian" on Australia Day 2017.

As a friend replied: Great graph. We are a blessed nation.

Click Here for "The Great Southland" by Geoff Bullock © 1991 Word Music   Recorded at paulsplace   Click here for lyrics

Final amounts:
Govt figures for 2009-2010 showed total tax revenue of $290 billion, and total govt expenses of $338 billion, leaving an operating deficit of $48 billion. Our GDP that year was about a cool $1 trillion.
Govt Salaries 2009-2010 PM: $340,704 Deputy PM: $268,632 Treasurer: $245,700 Opposition Leader: $242,424

Below is a quick definition of GDP Gross Domestic Product. All three approaches are designed to bring a roughly equivalent total.

  1. Production Approach: Total annual gross (less cost of sales) for all business enterprises whether individual, corporate or government. It includes total exports, as they boost our trade balance, and an "imputed services value" in dwelling ownership.
    Click here for GDP by Australian industry between 2006 and 2011.
  2. Income Approach: Those totals are made up of wages, profits, interest, rents, also adding back provisions for depreciation.
  3. Expenditure Approach: These totals are employed in private consumption, investment in new assets, and government taxation.
    Note, with record low (and even negative) interest rates, many governments are boosting their GDP in overall security education and health by spending more than they receive in taxation, issuing government bonds to account for the shortfall, and in Japan and the West using quantitative easing to "monetize that debt" without increasing interest rates. Click here to see each government's tax and spend figures as percentages of overall GDP.

    Note too, the following figures are specifically excluded from GDP:

** With regard to gifts to churches and non-profit aid organizations, click here for the "mutuality" principle that is applied.

Click here to read Wikipedia's article on each country's GDP.

Click here for a Euro journal tracking the IMF's bailout of Greece on May 4th 2010.
Brief Quote "The Greek bailout means Euro-area nations are indeed their brothers' keepers, which in practice means every country's debt is on every other country's balance sheet."

Further thoughts on the Reserve Bank (in Australia), the Big Four (plus other Banks), and Australian Govt Debt

Click here for the Australian Govt's Reserve Bank Balance Sheet, comparing 2020 with 2019.

Click here for UTS financial lecture notes on how the Reserve Bank actually operates as a clearing house for all Australian banks every day.
From /nexusnotes-media/wp-content/uploads/edd/2016/07/16031534 /Pages-from-The-Financial-System-Notes.pdf

Click here for the timeline of our "Big Four" Australian banks. Includes a link to the latest APRA report showing current assets and liabilities of all Australian banks.

Click here for a report 2004 - 2020 of Australian Govt Gross Debt.

Click here for a graph 2011 - 2020 of Australian Govt Budget Surplus/Deficit.

Click here for a 45 year graph estimates 1971 - 2016 of Australian Govt Net Debt (Gross Debt less Financial Assets in Currency, Stocks and Bonds) as published by FlagPost - Australia's Commonwealth Parliamentary Library - in 2012.

Click here for a 60 year Aussie Home Interest Rates Timeline 2019 back to 1959.


Now, the email below sets out further details of early years of trading in Australia

Before Banks

How did everyone in Australia really survive before banks?

And secondly since 1817, virtually no depositor into a *savings bank in Australia who then stayed in Australia has ever lost his or her money. How come? In Australia, the Federal Government currently insures and thus guarantees personal deposits, up to $AU 250,000 per customer per institution, including approved credit unions.
*noting as well that until the mid-1960s savings banks and trading banks were treated as separate categories


  1. Click here for further background to Australia's settlement in recorded history (after 1788), specifically looking at Brisbane.
  2. Click here for a GDP refresher (Gross Domestic Product) with Australia being somewhat a standout, given our size and youth.
  3. Click here for the timelines of the "Big Four" — Westpac, NAB, ANZ and CBA and the names of many others that merged with them, or became insolvent. Banks do not "create" wealth, they can only facilitate it, remove it, or become insolvent, click here for more on how banks become insolvent.
  4. Click here for a list of 53 Australian Banks in 2020, 46 Australian owned and seven foreign owned.

Main Body

Looking at the first question, in 1788 it was the grand old days of "promissory" / "small change" exchange notes used for bartering — all having a "face" value and a "buying" value. 100 businesses apparently got started up this way in Sydney and Hobart. Yes, the imagination boggles at what they promised soldiers, administrators and free settlers, both legally and illegally. And with a major shortage of silver coins, rum became the colony's "money", more by necessity than choice.

A brief background: With the departure of Captain Phillip at the end of his tenure as governor in 1792, the infant colony was briefly left in the care of lieutenant-governors who governed on behalf of the New South Wales Army Corps. Importantly, members of this military force had the ability to raise capital — labour and materials — by borrowing against their regimental pay, which was accumulating back home in England.

At the time, John Palmer was the official commissary in Sydney, empowered to draw bills of exchange on the British Treasury countersigned by the governor. He kept the public accounts and funds of the colony and was at once official supplier, contractor and banker to the settlement.

In 1793 the American trading ship, the 'Hope', arrived with 7,500 gallons of rum in her cargo. The other goods she carried were desperately needed but the Hope's captain insisted that he would sell nothing to the colonists unless they also bought all of his rum. The New South Wales Corps officers accordingly formed a syndicate with regimental paymaster John MacArthur fixing the necessary IOUs against the regiment's funds in England, bought this cargo, then distributed it at a sizeable profit. The vast pool of rum flooded into the market place at grossly inflated prices and at once became a means of exchange. For their efforts, the New South Wales Corps were immediately dubbed the 'Rum Corps', a name which stuck until their recall to England in 1810. The rich pickings they made from that first deal gave them the power to monopolise almost all trade, particularly that in rum (the name given to all spirits), for those 17 years.
In 1805 MacArthur, having resigned his commission, was appointed 5,000 acres at Camden Park by the Privy Council in London for his growing herds of Merino sheep, and run from Elizabeth Farm near Parramatta, his original acreage that he had named after his wife.

Click here for further background to John MacArthur, his trips to England, and an account of the coup against Governor Bligh in 1808 which led to MacArthur's son going to London accompanied by the first bale of exported wool.

Click here for an archived history of Australia Post, with Isaac Nichols appointed the first postmaster in 1809. Having one man in charge alleviated the mayhem that at times occurred when supply ships arrived, which was said to include unscrupulous people taking other people's mail and selling it back to them. Nichols worked from his house, also substantial buildings he had built in lower George St then known as High Street from where he had also established a shipyard. The cost to a recipient for the service he provided was one shilling i.e. about $65 today.

Incidentally, this principle of "having the recipient pay" is still practised by Australia Post with letters or parcels where there is no (or under) paid postage. If there is no return address listed on the back, their "stated" policy is to leave a card for the addressee advising of a postal article awaiting with more to pay on it. Then, if still unclaimed and if there is no return address inside, after a length of time — between three and 12 months depending on the value of any goods inside — any goods are auctioned off for charity.

In 1810 Governor Macquarie arrived with a new army regiment, followed, in November 1812, by a shipment of £10,000 value in Spanish dollars (i.e. $40,000 in Spanish coins) for the colony's use. Now, starting in 1817, came the first banks, working initially with these Spanish dollars. MacArthur returned that same year, with his exported wool soon making him the "richest man" in NSW. In January 1826 English currency became Australia's official currency, using silver and copper coins issued to the troops from the London mint. Within 10 years all other coins disappeared from circulation.

After Federation in 1901, these British coins continued in use. In 1910 came the first Australian silver coins, threepences, sixpences, shillings and florins, then in 1911 Australian copper pennies, all also minted overseas.
Not until after WW1 started did Australia's first silver coin minting begin, at the Melbourne mint, in 1916. The Canberra Mint was opened in 1965, in preparation for Australia's decimal coinage.

Back to 1817. Australian banks were now divided into two distinct categories — savings banks and trading banks. Savings banks paid virtually no interest to their depositors, their lending activities were restricted to providing mortgages, and ended up guaranteed or owned by the colonial governments, using post offices as front counter agencies. Safer for borrowers and depositors. Trading banks on the other hand were private banks, essentially merchant banks, which provided no services to the general public, but were underwriters for farmers, miners, builders, etc. They printed private banknotes / future-dated promissory notes, based on their paid-up capital — starting with that Bank of NSW in 1817. But most of these trading institutions closed their doors — specifically through depressions in the 1840s and in the 1890s — as businesses that partnered with them failed, with inadequate insurance. And then there were the standover merchants, not to mention bushrangers. It was a tough land. Ouch.

But with savings banks, even when fraud occurred, losses were borne via colonial government regulation only by shareholders & overseas depositors / banknote holders. Rarely, if ever, by Australian depositors / banknote holders. While runs on savings banks certainly occurred, it meant a corresponding "domino" effect was short-lived. For example, in one of the first runs in 1843 on the Savings Bank of NSW (no relation to the Bank of NSW), the colonial government undertook to guarantee trustees' borrowings, if taken out to meet the bank's repayments, of up to £50 000.
This action followed the crash, and loss to many wealthy ones, of an early merchant bank known as the Bank of Australia.

And private banknotes and cheques gained a bad "rap". Click here for further background.

Of course, the gold rush in 1851 helped — some people . A Sydney mint opened in 1855, issuing gold coins, followed by the Melbourne mint in 1872, then Perth in 1899.

In 1862, for a maximum of £20, the NSW Post Office money order service commenced, first under its Treasury, in 1865 its Postmaster-General (PMG). Money orders could be sent to the colonies, and London.

In 1893, the year of the great Brisbane flood and with many banks failing, the Queensland Treasury issued their own legal tender banknotes, and prohibited all private banks in its colony from issuing their own notes. These, instead, replaced the private banknotes of the eight trading banks whose doors had not closed.
Click here to read about the political situation, with missionaries from London requesting Queensland's protection to New Guinea in the immediate north.

But, back to banking, they were the first colonial government to issue notes on a major scale since, perhaps, the days of that regimental paymaster John MacArthur in 1793 with those IOUs. And, as intended, it helped restore confidence and brought people and investment — to Brisbane (and Queensland).

Queensland had another "first" 84 years later when under Joh Bjelke-Petersen it abolished death duties, which, yes, got the other state governments somewhat cranky as they do all have to compete for capital, and there was a sizeable inrush of capital into Queensland when that announcement came in January 1977.

Old Age Pensions and Income Tax

  1. In 1895 in Victoria and NSW, an Income Tax Act enabled them to offer the Old Age Pension in January 1901. In NSW the pension was 10 shillings weekly or 15 shillings for married couples. It was available to *all persons of reputable character aged at least 60, earning less than £50 annually, and resident in NSW for 15+ years. It followed similar schemes in Denmark in 1892, and New Zealand in 1899.
  2. In preparation to offer the same (for 65 year olds) starting in July 1908, in January 1902 the Qld government introduced its Income Tax Act, click here for more details. The levy was 10 shillings per annum on every adult male over the age of 21 earning less then £100, £1 per annum if earning between £100 and £150, then 5% on "produce of property" income and 2½% on "personal exertion" income for income over £150. Note, adult females weren't taxed unless their income exceeded £150. Click here for links to the other states.
  3. Then starting July 1909, the Commonwealth administered the old age pension for *all Australians resident 25+ years. It was funded yearly through a reduction of excise duties and customs duties paid to the states. For further background on Australia's tax history, click here.

    *The pension excluded Aliens, Asiatics born outside Australia, Africans, Aboriginals, Islanders, the "White" Australia policy that had to wait till 1942 before it started being wound back.

Back to Banknotes in 1910 the Commonwealth Treasury said it would give the same banknote guarantee, Australia-wide, and told the Queensland Treasury to stoppit . They purchased all unused private banknote paper, once again, provided that doors were still open, overprinted them with the words "Australian Note", securing them with gold, and foreign bonds.

In December 1911 the Commonwealth Bank, fully owned by the Federal Government, opened for general business.

In 1913, the Australian Treasury began printing brand new banknotes in Melbourne using the company Note Printing Australia.

In 1915, in the midst of World War 1, Australia followed the United Kingdom in prohibiting all gold exports except with the Treasurer's consent. This restriction was only temporarily removed in 1925.

In 1920 the Commonwealth Bank became Australia's Central Bank, and took over responsibility for note printing from the Commonwealth Treasury. It became the Clearing House between the Big Four Banks (1. Bank of NSW -today Westpac-, 2. National Bank, 3. ANZ and 4. Itself) and when required, it was a Lender of Last Resort.

In 1929, the Commonwealth Bank Act provided for the requisitioning of all Australian gold in exchange for Australian notes. Formal action was never insisted upon under this legislation, but it marked the beginning of the end of the holding of gold by banks and the public in Australia. The Bank made gold available to meet domestic industrial demand, but exports were strictly controlled. The Australian pound was devalued against the English pound at different rates from 1929 until December 1931, when the government pegged it at 80% of the English pound.

In June 1932, the Commonwealth Bank Act was amended to allow part of the note reserve to be held in UK pounds sterling, with £UK 10 million of gold shipped overseas from the gold reserve of the Australian Notes Fund.

The outbreak of World War II again called for special Commonwealth gold controls. In 1939 regulations under the Defence Act provided for the acquisition by the Commonwealth Bank of newly won and other gold. After the war these controls were continued in the Banking Act, until they were lifted in 1976.

In 1960, the Reserve Bank of Australia became Australia's Central Bank in the place of the Commonwealth Bank, with each member bank holding Exchange Settlement Accounts. Smaller banks and building societies and credit unions though still had no direct access and could only provide customers with agency cheques via an arrangement with a major bank.

On February 14th 1966, Australia switched over to a decimal currency where 10 shillings became $1.00 and £1 became $2.00.

In 1967 when England devalued the pound sterling in relation to the US dollar, the Australian dollar retained its prior value ($AU1.00 = $US1.12).
On August 15 1971 when the US abandoned its $35 per ounce fixed price gold standard and allowed it to officially drop in value, by government policy (and Reserve Bank trading) the Australian dollar rose in value against the US dollar. In September 1974 it became pegged to a "trade weighted index" or a fixed "basket" of currencies.

In 1983 the Australian government fully "floated" the Australian dollar, allowing it to also officially drop in value. Today it no longer fixes its value by reference to any specific currency, or basket of currencies. In 1985 there was massive deregulation. That year sixteen foreign banks gained access to the system, followed by many more. In early 1997, the Reserve Bank increased its holding of overseas currencies, selling 167 tonnes of gold and exchanging it for $US, and later on € euro, and others.
It has enabled it to intervene, e.g. during the global financial crisis, to restore market liquidity and limit excessive price volatility.

The last bank failure in which Australian depositors lost money (and then only a minimal amount) was that of a trading bank, the Primary Producers Bank of Australia, back in 1931. Since then until today, banks have wound up but, banking sector problems have been resolved, without losses to depositors. As mentioned earlier, the Federal Government currently insures and thus guarantees deposits (up to $250,000) per customer, per institution, click here.

Yes, we are such a young country, hard to understand other countries' situations, and so hard for other countries to understand us. And isn't it amazing at how the Lord has undertaken, so often, during those past 233 years.

Click here for further background of how deposit slips and promissory notes evolved into privately backed banknotes and government backed "legal tender" banknotes, and how the bill of exchange turned into a modern cheque.

Click here for some photos of Australia's early pre-decimal banknotes and coins.

With regard to the following timeline tracking Australia's wages click here to view it as a separate page

AU Wages Timeline 1788-2020

AU Wages Timeline 1788-2020 compared with US Debt

Australia Basic Wage
Fair Work Commission   Wikipedia
State Library Victoria

Fair Work Australia Youth U16 36.8%   16yrs 47.3%   17yrs 57.8%   18yrs 68.3%   19yrs 82.5%   20yrs 97.7% Adult

US Govt Debt
US Treasury
1788 One shilling and sixpence per day$70 million
1835$33 thousand its lowest ever
1865 Farm Labourer two shillings and sixpence per day
Carpenter 10 shillings per day
$2 billion
following American Civil War
1907 Seven shillings per day or £2.2.0 per week
Basic Award to support a "man, his wife, and three children"
$2 billion
1922 £4.10.0 per week with widespread price rises following the First World War
Paper money (i.e. a promise backed by 80 tonnes in gold reserves) had become all the rage following the Australian Notes Act of 1910 enabling banknotes issued via Australian Govt Treasury and cancelling those more fallible banknotes of individual banks
$25 billion, through the enormous expenditure of First World War and the setting up of the League of Nations
1928 £4.9.6 per week$18 billion
1930 £3.1.1 per week during the Great Depression
The 6 day week became a 5½ day (44 hour) week
In 1935 the Printers Union wins one week of paid leave
Drops to $16 billion in 1930
then rapidly increases under Roosevelt's "New Deal"
1938 £4.1.0 per week$40 billion
1946 £5.0.0 per week
In 1945 the Annual Holidays Act provides two weeks of paid leave
$250 billion due to WW2, followed by the US setting up United Nations and providing help to West Germany, Japan, South Korea, other economies worldwide
1947 £7.2.0 per week
In 1948 the 5 day week introduced
1950 £8.2.0 per week 
1953 £11.16.0 per week with considerable inflation following the Second World War
Between 1951-1955 Qld, NSW and Victoria passed legislation granting 13 weeks long service leave to all employees with 15 years or more service, a benefit unique to Australia
1960 £13.16.0 per week$300 billion
1961 £14.8.0 per week
In 1963 Commonwealth Industrial Court adopts three weeks paid leave
1966 $32.80 (£16.8.0) per week
In 1966, the AU dollar was launched, worth 10 shillings
1967 $40 (£20) per week ($1.00 per hour) 
1969 $54 per week
In October 1968 the minimum hourly wage was $1.35
$350 billion

In 1971, President Nixon cancelled the fixed US dollar to gold exchange rate (since 1934 at US$35 per ounce)

Click here for our experience in Australia with Gough Whitlam's "seat of the pants" government Dec 1972 - Nov 1975. Free Universities, Free Medical, wow.

Australia Basic WageUS Govt Debt
1972 $80 per week
In 1974 four weeks paid leave plus 17½% loading
$450 billion
1976 $102 per week
Wages have tripled over 10 years through "stagflation"
$620 billion
1978 $120.80 per week $770 billion
1980 $134.80 per week
In 1983 the 38 hour week introduced
$1 trillion
1987 $178.24 per week  
1990 $214.49 per week$3 trillion
1995 $284.45 per week  
1997 $359.40 per week  
2000 $400.40 per week$6 trillion
2010 $569.90 per week$10 trillion
2020 $753.80 per week, & from July 1st 2021 $772.60 per week arguably the highest in the world, plus 9½% compulsory superannuation going to 10% on July 1st 2021$22 going on $27 trillion
caused by COVID-19

So in 2020, $753.80 (or $150.76) per day which is 215 times the seven shillings daily wage of 1907. A fair increase in inflation over these 113 years. At that 215 fold rate of increase, and accelerating another 44 times as this was the acceleration factor over the 4.67 increase that occurred between 1780 and 1907, by 2130 we could all be earning over $1 million per day.

Not bad .

Yes, at these times, may we keep our eye on the Lord. Let our eye be single, having "dove's eyes".

** End of article

Go Top

Daily Settlements between Banks

Click here for further information on inter-bank payments at the Reserve Bank of Australia. Final settlement of obligations between banks is by entries to their Exchange Settlement Accounts (ESAs) at the Reserve Bank. Large-value payments are settled one-by-one on a real-time gross settlement (RTGS) basis, while retail payments are settled on a net settlement basis. The Reserve Bank is of course responsible for Australian banknotes on issue, currently about $90 billion.

Click here for further background to the minting of Australian coins from the English Royal Mint.

Click here for the Australian Payments Network, responsible for the BSB system used when making direct debits and credits between Australian bank accounts. These transactions are cleared daily. Also responsible for cheque clearance, which by 2017 had dropped to one-fifth of the volume of cheques issued in 2007. In 2017, around 4 cheques were written per person in Australia, down from 20 cheques per person 10 years earlier. A significant share of cheque use is related to commercial payments, and financial institution ('bank') cheques for certain transactions such as property settlements.

Click here re EFTPOS in Australia, launched by Woolworths, Coles and major banks in 1988 for same day clearance. It employed Mastercard's Maestro debit card service that required not only that the magnetic stripe was able to be read with every transaction, but also that cleared funds were available and could be affirmed by each cardholder's issuing bank, helping shoppers stay in control of their budgeting.

Click here for Paypal, an EFTPOS member but based in the US. It was created by Peter Thiel and other investors in 1998, and was owned by eBay 2002 - 2014.

Click here for BPAY for other Australian merchants, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cardlink Services Limited. It is owned equally by the four major Australian banks i.e. Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, Commonwealth Bank, National Australia Bank and Westpac. Launched in 1997, it is of course totally separate to EFTPOS and BSB.

Click here for an easy-to-follow image of the numerous steps involved in the processing of electronic card transactions. Click here for the difference between the "card issuer" bank and the "acquirer" bank (merchant bank).

Click here for Visa and Mastercard's background. Click here for the Bank Identification Numbers issued to them and other credit cards worldwide. Click here for Visa's US-based Card Acceptance Guidelines for Merchants. It shows the steps Visa follows, in validating a transaction worldwide.


Thoughts on Mammon

Below are two lists based on the IMF List 2018 - 2021 of debtor and creditor nations by Net international investment position.

What it does is take the total external financial assets (Cash, stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and bank deposits) by a country's legal residents, then subtracts the total external liabilities, both public and private.
In the US, their latest report in December 2020 showed assets totalling $32.16 trillion, and liabilities $46.25 trillion, a nett figure in the red of $14.09 trillion.

1. The 28 creditor nations listed in US$ are

  1. Japan on $3.721 trillion in 2020
  2. Germany on $2.870 trillion in 2020
  3. Hong Kong on $2.153 trillion in 2020
  4. China on $2.150 trillion in 2020
  5. Taiwan on $1.343 trillion in 2019
  6. Norway on $1.144 trillion in 2020
  7. Netherlands on $1.125 trillion in 2020
  8. Canada on $1.058 trillion in 2020
  9. Singapore on $1.047 trillion in 2020
  10. Switzerland on $752 billion in 2020
  11. Saudi Arabia on $623 billion in 2020
  12. Russia on $505 billion in 2020
  13. South Korea on $440 billion in 2020
  14. Belgium on $249 billion in 2020
  15. Denmark on $236 billion in 2020
  16. Israel on $196 billion in 2020
  17. Argentina on $122 billion in 2020
  18. South Africa on $109 billion in 2020
  19. Sweden on $108 billion in 2020
  20. Kuwait on $96 billion in 2020
  21. Thailand on $55 billion in 2020
  22. Austria on $51 billion in 2020
  23. Luxembourg on $38 billion in 2020
  24. Italy on $37 billion in 2020
  25. Uzbekistan on $20 billion in 2020
  26. Malaysia on $20 billion in 2020
  27. Malta on $9 billion in 2020
  28. Iceland on $8 billion in 2020

Totalling $ trillion

2. The 53 debtor nations listed in US$ are

  1. USA on $14.092 trillion in 2020
  2. Spain on $1.160 trillion in 2020
  3. United Kingdom on $858 billion in 2020
  4. France on $747 billion in 2020
  5. Australia on $730 billion in 2020
  6. Ireland on $706 billion in 2020
  7. Mexico on $590 billion in 2020
  8. Turkey on $403 billion in 2020
  9. Brazil on $390 billion in 2020
  10. India on $379 billion in 2021
  11. Greece on $359 billion in 2020
  12. Indonesia on $281 billion in 2020
  13. Poland on $274 billion in 2020
  14. Portugal on $262 billion in 2020
  15. Egypt on $194 billion in 2020
  16. Colombia on $175 billion in 2020
  17. New Zealand on $128 billion in 2020
  18. Romania on $126 billion in 2020
  19. Pakistan on $120 billion in 2020
  20. Peru on $86 billion in 2020
  21. Nigeria on $85 billion in 2020
  22. Sudan on $85 billion in 2018
  23. Hungary on $76 billion in 2020
  24. Slovakia on $74 billion in 2020
  25. Kazakhstan on $70 billion in 2020
  26. Panama on $64 billion in 2020
  27. Tunisia on $64 billion in 2019
  28. Mozambique on $59 billion in 2020
  29. Serbia on $52 billion in 2020
  30. Bangladesh on $44 billion in 2020
  31. Mongolia on $37 billion in 2020
  32. Cyprus on $36 billion in 2020
  33. Chile on $35 billion in 2020
  34. Czech Republic on $33 billion in 2020
  35. Croatia on $32 billion in 2020
  36. Belarus on $31 billion in 2020
  37. Zambia on $28 billion in 2020
  38. Cambodia on $21 billion in 2020
  39. Ukraine on $21 billion in 2020
  40. Bulgaria on $21 billion in 2020
  41. Philippines on $20 billion in 2020
  42. Republic of Congo on $20 billion in 2018
  43. Uganda on $19 billion in 2019
  44. Nicaragua on $14 billion in 2020
  45. Latvia on $13 billion in 2020
  46. Armenia on $10 billion in 2020
  47. Lithuania on $9 billion in 2020
  48. Slovenia on $9 billion in 2020
  49. Albania on $9 billion in 2020
  50. Montenegro on $9 billion in 2018
  51. Estonia on $7 billion in 2020
  52. Finland on $6 billion in 2020
  53. Bhutan on $2 billion in 2020

Totalling $ trillion

Note the discrepancy of $2.890 trillion between dollars invested (mostly in the US) by creditor nations, and dollars in debt by debtor nations, can be (at least partially) accounted for by the different accounting systems in place. Secrets.

Some funding doubtless came from the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Bank for International Settlements.

At March 31 2021, this report showed the amount owing to the IMF from their General Resources Account (GRA) and Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) was 102 billion SDRs (about $145 billion) with the SDR currently worth $US 1.43.
The World Bank reported $600 billion in total assets in four entities (IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA).
And at March 31 2020, this BIS report showed 55 billion SDRs (about $78 billion) owing in Loans and advances.

Regarding Australia's debtor nation status in fifth position, ever since we were first settled we've relied on other countries to invest in us to help us get going. And our public service has always been somewhat top heavy.
See a recent chart below for how much we are individually and corporately in debt to "managed funds" (in Australia as well as overseas).

Mammon and Babylon — Matthew 6:19-24   Luke 16:1-13   Revelation 17:1-5   Zechariah 5:1-11

Revelation 17:5 And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS (foul stenches) OF THE EARTH.

Click here re the Four Horsemen, Simon the Pharisee, Judas, and Paul's attitude to taking up a collection.

Click here re the History of Money and click here re the History of Inflation.

On May 28, 2014 6:49 PM, "Stephen Williamson" wrote:

Subject: Chatting about mammon - the great "mamma" this morning :-)

Ok Australia's Federal Net debt in bonds is now about $270 billion
$492 billion in June 2020

Total State and Territory debt in bonds about $230 billion
Private company debt in bonds about $720 billion
So, bonds investment: $1.22 trillion

Total private housing debt about $870 billion
Total investment housing debt about $410 billion
So, housing: $1.28 trillion

Private credit card debt and personal borrowings $140 billion
Private company borrowings from banks, etc about $730 billion
So, other borrowings: .87 trillion

Total Australian Debt $3.37 trillion, roughly, in May 2013 click here

So who is in the black?

Various Australian Managed Funds (excluding "cross-investments") — superannuation (about 75% of the total),
public unit trusts&life insurance (about 25% of the total)
ABS Link: $2.3 trillion
$3.2 trillion in March 2021
$2.3 trillion
Gross: Overseas investors (in Australian currency)
DFAT Link: $3.2 trillion
$3.8 trillion in 2019 click here for a recent AFR article
less: Australian investors (in overseas currency)
DFAT Link: $2.2 trillion
$2.9 trillion in 2019
Nett from Overseas Investment
ABS Link: $1.0 trillion
$1.0 trillion
Leaving a balance, roughly, for banks and other investors in Australia to supply:$70 billion
Total:$3.37 trillion

Yep, we've relied hugely on overseas investment since 1788 — starting with those famous IOU's written in 1793 for 7,500 bottles of overseas rum, authorized by the British Regiment's Paymaster — but with so much now available in our own superannuation and insurance and trust funds, the percentage of nett overseas investment has actually dropped.

So, while Mr Abbott and Mr Hockey are doubtless wise in endeavouring to, very gradually, reduce the $300 billion owing in federal bonds, those other figures do help to bring it all into a better perspective, with all the shouting that's going on.

Thank you Lord, yes, to rest in you, to look to you, our loving heavenly Father, for each coming day's needs.

"give us day by day, the bread for each coming day" as several translations put it.

Blessings all :-) Steve

And at the end of the day, as the scripture says, each one of us has to bear his own load, whether as individuals, company directors or politicians. Ahh the Lord knows.

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