Click here for a map and background to this page.
Click here for estimates on population growth in China and India, Pakistan and Bangla Desh, Japan and Indonesia, contrasted with Russia England and Australia, the US and Canada, Mexico and Brazil from 1 AD to 2019.
Intro: Empires have always revolved around having a language, or at least a common writing system for communication purposes. Click Here for a timeline.
In Europe, this became the Latin alphabet with its 26 characters, and with French and Spanish having diacritics (accents) over the tops of certain letters to assist with pronunciation. English, a little more "lazily", or perhaps "Kiss" — Keep it Simple stupid, refused to add those diacritics.
In the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East where Turkish was the common language and Arabic was the language of the Koran and prayer, communication before 1926 was a Turkish variation on the Perso-Arabic script. In 1926 Turkey changed to a Latin based alphabet, adding some additional letters.
Regarding China where Mandarin Chinese was the language of the emperor and a traditional script of characters was used to represent words, peoples learned to pronounce each word their own way in their own dialect.
In looking at their history, China's earliest records show its first dynasty (after the flood) to be the Xia dynasty.
By 1000BC, the census estimate shows 14 million.
In 200BC at the start of the Han Dynasty that finalized the Great Wall and the Silk Road, about 20 million.
In 1AD at the time of Christ, the protection of the Wall took it to perhaps 60 million which it apparently stayed about for the next 1500 years. Sadly, wars and enslavement were commonplace, even infanticide if you were born with little.
Improved conditions and a larger population became their history after 1600. China's census estimate of 300 million in 1800 was higher than any other single country.
Since the 1950s and 1960s, China has developed a simplified script taught in schools everywhere on the mainland. They use a Latin based alphabet (called Pinyin) when typing into computers.
Regarding India, click here for their timeline, the country had just the one "holy" language called Sanskrit, but many writing scripts after the Syrians, the Persians, the Greeks, the Turks, the Mongols, and then in the 1800 census, the British administrators. Today Hindi is the main official language with many able to speak or at least understand English.
Click a column heading to sort alphabetically. Click REFRESH to restore original layout.
|No.||Empire or Language Group ▲▼||Country||Country (thousands)||Empire or Language Group (thousands)|
Zhong-guo — Middle Kingdom
|India estimate excluding Bengal, Mumbai and Madras|
|India excluding Bengal, Mumbai and Madras||160000||160000|
|British||British India presidencies Bengal, Mumbai and Madras||40340||115681|
|British||British Citizens elsewhere (includes India, Europe, Africa, Asia)||58994||115681|
|Africa estimate uncounted||Africa (no census)||90000||90000|
|French||Netherlands (Nederlandse) occupied by Napoleon|
Dutch United Provinces (including Holland) 1850
Dutch East Indies (Java) 4200
|French||Austrian Netherlands (later known as Belgium)||4000||44635|
|French||Ligurian Republic (Genoa, Italy)||2011||44635|
|French||Helvetic Republic (Switzerland)||1600||44635|
|French||Cisrhenian Republic (Cologne, Germany)||1600||44635|
|French||Cisalpine Republic (Milan, Italy)||1300||44635|
|French||Saint-Domingue (French Caribbean)||657||44635|
An area that included 15 modern day states west of the Mississippi River. Sold by Napoleon to USA in 1803
|French||French Guiana (South America)||15||44635|
|French||Andorra (Between Spain and France)||5||44635|
|Russian||Livonia and Courland (Latvia)||725||35113|
|Russian||Septinsular Republic (Corfu, Greece)||120||35113|
|Japan Nippon||Tokugawa Shogunate (Japan)||29000||29000|
|Ottoman Osman||Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, Moldavia-Wallachia (Romania), Serbia, Albania, Bosnia, Cyprus, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, etc||16542||26000|
|Ottoman Osman||Anatolia (Turkey)||5604||26000|
|Ottoman Osman||Egypt Eyalet||3854||26000|
|Spanish Espagnol||New Spain|
Mexico and area to the north under its administration
|Spanish Espagnol||New Granada|
Colombia and areas under its administration - modern day Venezuela, Panama, Ecuador
|Spanish Espagnol||Rio de la Plata|
Argentina and areas under its administration - modern day Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay
|Spanish Espagnol||Puerto Rico||136||25729|
|Austria-Hungary||Hungary (including Slovakia in the north)||6300||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Galicia (West Ukraine), Lodomeria (Poland)||3900||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Bohemia - Prague (Czech Republic, Germany)||2810||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Venetian Province (Venice, Italy)||1845||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Moravia (Czech Republic)||1260||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Styria (Austria and Slovenia)||800||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Tyrol (Austria and Italy)||610||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Carinthia (Austria and Slovenia, also Italy, Croatia)||300||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Austrian Silesia (Czech Republic and Poland)||250||23145|
|Austria-Hungary||Bukovina (Romania and Ukraine)||130||23145|
|German Deutsches||Prussia (Brandenburg)||9700||21720|
|German Deutsches||Salzburg, Hannover, Trier, Cologne etc (Germany)||4810||21720|
|German Deutsches||Bavaria (Germany)||3200||21720|
|German Deutsches||Wurttemberg (Germany)||1350||21720|
|German Deutsches||Baden (Germany)||912||21720|
|German Deutsches||Thuringian states (Germany)||612||21720|
|German Deutsches||Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)||318||21720|
|German Deutsches||Wurzburg (Germany)||250||21720|
|German Deutsches||Oldenburg (Germany)||159||21720|
|German Deutsches||Reuss Elder Line (Germany)||76||21720|
|German Deutsches||Lippe (Germany)||70||21720|
|German Deutsches||Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Germany)||70||21720|
|German Deutsches||Anhalt-Dessau (Germany)||52||21720|
|German Deutsches||Arenberg (Germany)||48||21720|
|German Deutsches||Anhalt-Bernburg (Germany)||35||21720|
|German Deutsches||Anhalt-Kothen (Germany)||33||21720|
|German Deutsches||Schaumburg-Lippe (Germany)||20||21720|
|Korea — Jo-seon||Korea (North and South)||16500||16500|
|Indonesia||Indonesia outside of Java (no census)||12000||12000|
|Italy unified in 1870||Naples (Southern Italy)||5000||11170|
|Italy unified in 1870||Papal States (Rome in West, Marche Umbria Romagna in East)||2300||11170|
|Italy unified in 1870||Sicily||1700||11170|
|Italy unified in 1870||Tuscany (Capital Florence in Centre-West)||1200||11170|
|Italy unified in 1870||Sardinia (Island in West plus Capital Turin in North-West)||450||11170|
|Italy unified in 1870||Parma (North-Centre)||400||11170|
|Italy unified in 1870||Lucca (Northern Tuscany)||120||11170|
|Viet Nam||Annam (Viet Nam)||7291||7291|
|Persia (Iran)||Persia (Iran)||6000||6000|
|Thailand||Thailand (no census)||4500||4500|
|Burma (Myanmar)||Burma (Myanmar)||4200||4200|
In 1814 Norway became independent from Denmark, uniting with Swedish crown which took over its debts. Prussia purchased Pomerania from Sweden, also took over paying back a Denmark debt to Sweden.
In 1905 Norway's union with Sweden was dissolved.
|Denmark||Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands US)||40||2253|
|Arabia||Arabia (Saudi Kingdom)||2132||2132|
|Sikh (North India)||Sikh (Northern India)||1500||1500|
|Oman and Bahrain||Bahrain||363||663|
|Oman and Bahrain||Oman||300||663|
** End of List