409 - 710 Spain ruled by the Visigoths (Western Goths) who conquer northern Africa and Carthage. During this period, Emperor Justinian in Constantinople obtains a small area in Spain known as Spania on the southern coast which they rule 554 - 624.
711 - 718 Arab Moors from northern Africa now "return the favour" to Spain by conquering nearly all of it (it becomes known as al-Andalus). Its Capital city is Cordoba in the south. Compostela in Galicia and Asturias in the far north-west hold out, with Pelagius first King of Asturias.
741 A Berber revolt against the Arabs allows Asturias to reclaim land south to Douro River. However much of the land remained empty, forming a buffer area between Asturias and the Moors.
756 Abd al-Rahman I, Emir of Cordoba, declares his city's independence from the newly formed Abbasid dynasty in Damascus.
773 Porto and several cities of Northwestern Portugal taken by Alfonso I of Asturias.
801 Barcelona, in the north-east, freed by Louis the Pious (Charlemagne's son) and becomes a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona. Today known as Catalonia, possibly from Gathalania, land of the Goths with their language Catalan similar to the language of Valencia, further south.
856 King Alfonso III of Asturias took Leon, in 884 Burgos, in 868 appointed his Count, Vímara Peresas as the first Count of Portus Cale (Portugal). Upon his death in 910, the kingdom is split between his three sons becoming Galicia Asturias and Leon.
912 Cordoba issued their first gold dinars. Fame increases, promoting much classical Greek culture, by 1000 Mohammedans are over 50% of population in the peninsula. But a revolution by slaves in 1009 leads to the rout and downfall of Hisham III in 1031, the last of the Umayyad Caliphs. Cordoba subsequently loses its prosperity and fame, becomes an isolated city with the "ruling elite" well known for their "disinterest in the outside world ... and intellectual laziness" (Cordoba: Historical Overview).
1004 Kingdom of Pamplona is taken, becoming part of the Kingdom of Navarre. In 1035 the Kingdom of Aragon is formed from the county of Aragon inside Navarre.
1065 Castile in the north separated as a kingdom from the Kingdom of Leon. In 1085 takes Toledo from al-Andalus, followed by Madrid. Toledo becomes capital of Castile, and eventually in 1492 capital of Spain. It wasn't until 1561 that King Phillip II made Madrid the capital of Spain, shifting it from Toledo.
1100 Strict Arab rulers arrive in al-Andalus to enforce traditions over the (less strict) Berber Mohammedans and discourage any further independence claims.
1118 Zaragoza taken by Aragon.
1139 County of Portugal now a Kingdom under Afonso 1, reigning from his capital at Coimbra. This separation from the Kingdom was recognized by Leon and Castile in 1143. In 1147 Portugal conquered Lisbon, and in 1255 Lisbon, having a more central location, becomes Portugal's new capital.
1157 Leon and Castile issue their "maravedi" coin with 3.8 grams of gold, one dinar.
1212 Major battle of Las Tavas de Tolosa in al-Andalus with Castile joined by the armies of rival states Navarre, Aragon and Portugal to defeat the Moors and drive them out permanently. To pay their bills, gold content of their new maravedi coin drops to one gram, with paper maravedi records requiring nearly 4 of these new coins to clear debts. Awkward.
At a currency level, in 1252 a new silver maravedi coin issued with just 3.67 grams of silver. In 1258 paper maravedi records said to require six coins to clear debts, in 1271 just three coins to clear debts, and in 1286 paper records and silver coins exchangeable 1:1, but silver content continues to drop.
1344 Algeciras in the south taken. Just the southern strip of Granada (which includes the cities of Almeria, Malaga and Gibraltar) are now occupied by the Moors. They pay their taxes accordingly.
1350 a small silver coin called a Reale was issued, weighing 3˝ grams and valued at 3 Maravedis.
1469 Isabella of Castile marries Ferdinand of Aragon, uniting their two kingdoms.
1492 Granada falls. Isabella and Ferdinand issue the Treaty of Granada, requiring peace (i.e. conversion to Christianity) to be expected of all Jews and, shortly after, Mohammedans, else expulsion from Spain, forfeiting all monetary assets. Many accordingly convert, laying the grounds for the terrors of the upcoming Spanish Inquisition.
And, that same year, Columbus discovers America.
1516 After Ferdinand's death, his grandson Charles (via his daughter Joanna), becomes the first King Charles I of Spain, and in 1519, due to the Hapsburg in-laws, Holy Roman Emperor.
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