409 - 710 Spain ruled by the Visigoths (Western Goths) who next conquer northern Africa and Carthage. During this period, Emperor Justinian in Constantinople obtains a small area in Spain known as Spania on the southern coast which they rule 554 - 624. 711 - 718 Arabic Moors from northern Africa now "return the favour" to Spain by conquering most of it (it becomes known as al-Andalus). Its Capital city is Cordoba in the south. 729 The Kingdom of Asturias in the north fights back (that includes Galicia, Leon, and Castile). 742 Leon in the north freed from al-Andalus. 756 Abd al-Rahman I, Emir of Cordoba in the south, declares his city's independence from Damascus. Christians are allowed to rebuild their churches, but both Christians and Jews have to pay an extra tax (for not being Mohammedan). 801 Barcelona, in the north-east, freed by Louis the Pious (Charlemagne's son) and becomes a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona. Today, the region is known as Catalonia, a word thought to be derived from Gathalania, from Gothia, land of the Goths. Their language today, Catalan based on vulgar Latin, is similar to the language of Valencia, a major port city further to the south. 868 King Alfonso III of Asturias in the north appoints Vímara Peresas as the first Count of Portus Cale (Portugal), having its own language. 910 Leon in the north gains its independence from Asturias. 912 Cordoba (capital of al-Andalus in the south) issues their first gold dinars. Much promotion of classical Greek culture is occurring by Mohammedans and Jews. 929 Abd al-Rahman III declares himself Caliph of Cordoba. Cordoba becomes, perhaps, the most famous city in the world with regard to its size and grandeur. 1000 Mohammedans are now over 50% of population in the peninsula, particularly in the centre and the south. 1009 Revolution in Cordoba by the slaves. Ongoing fighting. In 1031, Hisham III, the last of the Umayyad Caliphs, was routed. Afterwards, Cordoba loses its prosperity and fame and becomes an isolated city. The "ruling elite" were well known for their "disinterest in the outside world ... and intellectual laziness" (Cordoba: Historical Overview). 1037 Castile in the north becomes a separate kingdom (previously it was part of Leon). 1085 Toledo in the centre is set free from al-Andalus by Castile. Followed the same year by Madrid. In Madrid, Christians replace Mohammedans in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Mohammedans and Jews settled in the suburbs. Note, it wasn't until 1561 that King Phillip II made Madrid the official capital of Spain, shifting it from Toledo, the place of his father's court. 1100 Strict Arab rulers arrive in al-Andalus to enforce traditions over the (less strict) Berber Mohammedans. Discourage any further independence claims. 1139 In this year the County of Portugal on the west coast became a Kingdom under Afonso 1, reigning from his capital city at Coimbra. This separation from the Kingdom of Leon was recognized by Leon and Castile in 1143. In 1147 Portugal conquered Lisbon from the Moors, and in 1255 Lisbon, having a more central location, became Portugal's new capital city. 1157-1158 Meanwhile, Leon and Castile in the north issue a "maravedi" coin with 3.8 grams of gold, approximately equivalent to one dinar. 1188 Alfonso (King of Leon) marries into Castile. 1212 Major battle of Las Tavas de Tolosa in Andalusia. Castile joined by the armies of rival states Navarre, Aragon and Portugal to defeat the Moors in an endeavour to drive them out permanently. 1213 To pay their bills, gold content of a new maravedi coin drops to one gram. Paper maravedi records thus require nearly 4 of these new coins to clear debts. Awkward. 1230 Alfonso dies. Alfonso's son Ferdinand now King of a united Castile (and Leon). 1236 Cordoba's government falls to Castile. 1238 Valencia's government falls. 1248 Seville's government falls. 1252 New silver maravedi coin issued but with just 3.67 grams of silver. 1258 Paper maravedi records said to require six of these new coins to clear debts. 1271 Paper maravedi records now require just three of these new coins to clear debts. 1286 Paper maravedi records and silver coins now 1:1, but silver content of coins continues to drop. 1350 a small silver coin called a Reale was issued, weighing 3˝ grams and valued at 3 Maravedis. Just the southern strip (of Granada) is now occupied by the Moors. They pay their taxes accordingly. 1469 Isabella of Castile marries Ferdinand of Aragon, uniting their two kingdoms. 1492 Isabella and Ferdinand issue the Treaty of Granada, requiring peace (i.e. conversion to Christianity) to be expected of all Jews and, later on, Mohammedans, else expulsion from Spain, forfeiting all monetary assets. Many accordingly convert. Awkwardly, the treaty lays the grounds for the evils of the upcoming Spanish Inquisition. And, that same year, Columbus discovers America. 1516 After Ferdinand's death, his grandson Charles (via his daughter Joanna), becomes the first King Charles I of Spain, and in 1519, due to the Hapsburg in-laws, Holy Roman Emperor.
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