Carrier Wave (70% speed of light) over the Internet

With this amazing speed back in 1969 (at the time called the Arpanet), built by the US Department of Defence, the goal was to have error-correcting control codes built in to every packet of data and auto-resend if not acknowledged via multiple pathways.

Go to actual Modem Speeds including Cable Modems. The bottleneck on the Internet was (and most of the time still is) at your local router, or on your smartphone.

Wikipedia (Singapore), Google (Sydney), Harvard (USA)

1. Look up Wikipedia (Singapore)

tracert en.wikipedia.org IP Address [103.102.166.224]
over a maximum of 30 hops:

linking first to my home router [192.168.0.1] (which includes in the outgoing packet a random 16 bit source Port integer identifying my PC) then to Optus Brisbane [49.177.208.1]
The packet is forwarded through Sydney, then Singapore, initially via Optus's HFC carrier network, Optus's gateway routers, and ultimately Singapore Government Telecommunications (Singtel owner of Optus) where it (i.e. one of Wikipedia's sites) is hosted [103.102.166.224].

  1     3 ms     2 ms     2 ms  mygateway.home [192.168.0.1]
  2    12 ms    12 ms    12 ms  n49-177-208-1.rdl1.qld.optusnet.com.au [49.177.208.1]
  3     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  4     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  5     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  6    27 ms    27 ms    36 ms  bla1-hu0-4-0.ig.optusnet.com.au [211.29.126.222]
  7     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  8     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  9    35 ms    24 ms    25 ms  mas2-hu0-4-0.ig.optusnet.com.au [198.142.249.250]
 10   119 ms   118 ms   154 ms  203.208.148.185 (Singapore)
 11   122 ms   121 ms   156 ms  203.208.158.206
 12   124 ms   123 ms   122 ms  203.208.151.50
 13   152 ms   121 ms   123 ms  xe-0-1-4.cr3-eqsin.wikimedia.org [103.102.166.144]
 14   124 ms   121 ms   123 ms  text-lb.eqsin.wikimedia.org [103.102.166.224]

Trace complete.

2. Lookup Google (Sydney)

tracert www.google.com (Sydney)

Tracing route to www.google.com [142.251.221.68]
over a maximum of 30 hops:

  1     2 ms     9 ms     2 ms  mygateway.home [192.168.0.1]
  2    14 ms    12 ms    11 ms  n49-177-208-1.rdl1.qld.optusnet.com.au [49.177.208.1]
  3     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  4     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  5     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  6     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  7    35 ms    29 ms    29 ms  hu0-7-0-0.22rrpr01.optus.net.au [59.154.18.214]
  8    32 ms    28 ms    28 ms  74.125.147.174
  9    29 ms    27 ms    32 ms  192.178.97.225
 10    27 ms    26 ms    31 ms  142.251.252.205
 11    27 ms    28 ms    27 ms  syd09s31-in-f4.1e100.net [142.251.221.68]

Trace complete.

3. Lookup Harvard (USA)

tracert www.harvard.com (Manassas in Virginia, USA)

Tracing route to harvard.com [64.64.9.47]
over a maximum of 30 hops:

Linking through Tata Communications, a major international telecommunications network based in India


  1     2 ms     5 ms     2 ms  mygateway.home [192.168.0.1]
  2    11 ms    11 ms    11 ms  n49-177-208-1.rdl1.qld.optusnet.com.au [49.177.208.1]
  3     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  4     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  5     *        *        *     Request timed out.
  6    25 ms    25 ms    25 ms  bla1-hu0-4-0.ig.optusnet.com.au [211.29.126.222]
  7   193 ms   180 ms   177 ms  203.208.177.125 (Singapore Tele California)
  8   191 ms   192 ms   214 ms  63.243.188.4 (TATA COMMUNICATIONS, San Jose, California)
  9   256 ms   254 ms   255 ms  if-be-77-2.ecore1.epao1-paloalto.as6453.net [216.6.16.6]
 10     *        *      255 ms  if-ae-11-2.tcore2.sv1-santaclara.as6453.net [66.198.127.27]
 11   254 ms     *      256 ms  if-ae-0-2.tcore1.sv1-santaclara.as6453.net [63.243.251.1]
 12     *      252 ms     *     if-ae-8-3.tcore1.lvw-losangeles.as6453.net [63.243.250.59]
 13     *      258 ms     *     if-ae-2-2.tcore2.lvw-losangeles.as6453.net [66.110.59.2]
 14   253 ms   252 ms   252 ms  if-bundle-34-2.qcore2.lvw-losangeles.as6453.net [207.45.219.128]
 15   251 ms   251 ms   252 ms  if-bundle-26-2.qcore2.aeq-ashburn.as6453.net [207.45.219.137]
 16   254 ms   253 ms   255 ms  if-bundle-2-2.qcore1.aeq-ashburn.as6453.net [216.6.87.8]
 17   247 ms   249 ms   248 ms  66.198.155.169 (TATA)
 18   250 ms   250 ms   251 ms  po-2.ce03.wdc-02.us.leaseweb.net [173.208.126.15]
 19   247 ms   252 ms   248 ms  srv3.harvard.com [64.64.9.47]


4. Lookup Google (Sydney) via Optus Smartphone

traceroute to www.google.com.au (142.250.67.3) , 5 relative hops max, 52 byte packets

Linking through three internal router IP addresses note IP addresses 192.168.xxx, 10.xxx, 172.xxx are conventionally private IP addresses not used for "public" IP routing. Used a lot by VPNs

1 10.111.29.189 (10.111.29.189) 26.208 ms 55.461 ms 56.846 ms
2 172.24.126.147 (172.24.126.147) 26.552 ms 60.973 ms 64.066 ms
3 10.194.120.209 (10.194.120.209) 20.997 ms 51.821 ms 54.525 ms
4 * * *
5 * * *
6 * * *
7 124.19.61.226 (124.19.61.226) 70.187 ms 113.437 ms 116.230 ms
8 72.14.219.128 (72.14.219.128) 71.688 ms 113.394 ms 116.038 ms
9 192.178.97.87 (192.178.97.87) 73.774 ms 155.368 ms 158.033 ms
10 142.250.224.185 (142.250.224.185) 42.451 ms 235.351 ms 238.231 ms
11 syd15s16-in-f3.1e100.net (142.250.67.3) 72.290 ms 235.575 ms 238.878 ms

Sent from my iPhone

5. Lookup Google (Sydney) via Smartphone and WiFi

traceroute to www.google.com.au (142.250.204.3) , 5 relative hops max, 52 byte packets

1 mygateway.home (192.168.0.1) 4.316 ms 19.731 ms 22.259 ms
2 n49-177-208-1.rdl1.qld.optusnet.com.au (49.177.208.1) 12.645 ms 36.477 ms 37.984 ms
3 * * *
4 * * *
5 hu0-4-1-0.22rrpr01.optus.net.au (124.19.61.118) 32.832 ms 60.779 ms 64.039 ms
6 74.125.147.174 (74.125.147.174) 25.267 ms 44.514 ms 46.376 ms
7 192.178.97.155 (192.178.97.155) 27.837 ms 43.517 ms 45.357 ms
8 142.251.64.177 (142.251.64.177) 23.602 ms 265.959 ms 268.013 ms
9 syd09s25-in-f3.1e100.net (142.250.204.3) 28.129 ms 49.644 ms 52.050 ms

Sent from my iPhone

Telephone Modems 1962

In 1962, the first commercial modem was manufactured – the Bell 103 by AT&T that had a speed of 300 bits per second (at 70% the speed of light).

In the 1980s, typical modem speeds progressed through 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 bps. In 1991 14.4Kbps, in 1994 28.8Kbps, then in 1996 the 56K modem invented by Brent Townshend, a new set of standards.

Dedicated Phone Line ISDN Modems 1989
ISDN (Integrated Services Delivery Network) modems launched in Canberra at 64 Kbps providing networks with phone calls, PC data, and Fax.

Cable Modems 1997
With Version 1.0 specs launched in the US in April, Telstra's July launch via the Motorola modem used the Hybrid Fibre-optic Coax (HFC) of their residential TV cable network. Always online, 10 Mbps download, 768 Kbps upload. Though technically capable of 30 Mbps, the Ethernet copper cable to the PC for version 1.0 was 10 Mbps max.
Downloads per month were 100 megabytes max, with excess fees 35 cents per megabyte. At $595 to firstly buy the modem, then pay an installation fee, lastly be subject to perhaps thousands of dollars if you uncaringly downloaded 4 gigabytes plus in movies in one month, that Internet cable option had a pretty low takeup.

In 2000, Optus launched a no-charge modem the Nortel CM100, similar stats but unlimited downloads, no excess fees, note Southern Cross Pacific Cable connecting Sydney to US had completed that year. Telstra matched Optus offer in 2001.

ADSL Phone Modems 2000
ADSL using a filtered voice line offered 1500 Kbps download, 256 Kbps upload.

NBN Cable

Click here for the NBN Timeline details.

Click here for Foxtel, Fetch and Internet streaming.

In 2024, HFC cable ca 40 Mbps download, 18 Mbps upload.

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